Flashcards for NEET Chemistry - The p-Block Elements

Flashcards for NEET Chemistry are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for the chapter “The p-Block Elements”. These flashcards are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. These are helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams, during last-minute revision. It covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Chemistry.

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Chemistry

The p-Block Elements

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The p-Block Elements

Group 15 Elements

N, P, As, Sb, Bi, Mc

The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np3

N and P – non-metals

As and Sb – metalloids

Bi and Mc (moscovium) – metals

Common oxidation states are -3, +3 and +5

Hydrides of Group 15 Elements

NH3 has higher melting and boiling points than PH3 due to hydrogen bonding

NH3 is a mild reducing agent and BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent

Basicity order – NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3

Halides of Group 15 Elements

Pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides

Nitrogen does not form pentahalide due to the absence of the d-orbitals in its valence shell

Ammonia

Prepared commercially by Haber’s process

It is trigonal pyramidal

It is a Lewis base due to the presence of a lone pair of electrons

White Phosphorus

P4 is tetrahedral, shows chemiluminescence

Less stable due to angular strain (60°)

Catches fire in the air

Red Phosphorus

It is polymeric, contains chains of P4 tetrahedra

Obtained by heating white phosphorus at 573 K

Black Phosphorus

α-Black phosphorus – it is prepared by heating red phosphorus at 803 K

β-Black phosphorus – it is prepared by heating white phosphorus at 473 K

Phosphine

PH3

Weakly basic

Prepared by heating white phosphorus with

concentrated NaOH solution

Used in Holme’s signals and in smoke screens

Phosphorus Trichloride (PCl3)

sp3 hybridisation, pyramidal shape

Preparation

P4 + 6Cl2 → 4PCl3

P4 + 8SOCl2 → 4PCl3 + 4SO2 + 2S2Cl2

Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)

Trigonal bipyramidal structure

Two axial P–Cl bonds are longer than equatorial bonds

Preparation

P4 + 10Cl2 → 4PCl5

P4 + 10SO2Cl2 → 4PCl5 + 10SO2

Group 16 Elements (Chalcogens)

O, S, Se, Te, Po, Lv

The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np4

The stability of the -2 oxidation state decreases down the group

Oxygen is exceptionally small and the most electronegative element after fluorine

Oxides

Generally, metallic oxides are basic, and non-metal oxides are acidic

Al2O3 – amphoteric

CO, NO and N2O – neutral oxides

Group 17 Elements (Halogens)

F, Cl, Br, I, At, Ts

The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np5

F and Cl are gases, Br is a liquid, and I is a solid

The most common oxidation state is –1, Cl, Br, and I also exhibit + 1, + 3, + 5 and + 7 oxidation states

Group 18 Elements (Noble gases)

He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, Og

The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np6

Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon and oganesson

Xenon-fluorine Compounds

XeF2 – Linear

XeF4 – Square planar

XeF6 – Distorted octahedral

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P – Block Elements | Top 15 Questions

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