Short Notes Disorders of Joints

Joint diseases or disorders are medical conditions, which affect joints in our body. Let’s learn about some of the common joint diseases, their causes, symptoms and pathogenesis.

1. Osteoarthritis

It is the most common disease of joints. It is caused due to wear and tear of cartilage present between joints. It results in pain, stiffness and swelling. Osteoarthritis is more common in joints of knee, spine, hands and hip. Risk factors include age, gender, obesity, injury or overuse of joints, etc.

2. Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. Here, one’s own immune system attacks the healthy cells causing inflammation and pain in joints. It is more common in the joints of fingers, wrist and knee. It may also cause mild fever, anaemia and fatigue other than pain, stiffness and swelling.

Inflammation can also be seen in small arteries and pericardium. In most cases of rheumatoid arthritis, a rheumatoid factor is present in the blood, which reacts with other classes of immunoglobulins.

3. Gout

Gout or gouty arthritis is a type of metabolic disorder. It is caused due to high levels of uric acid in the body or hyperuricemia.

Uric acid crystals get deposited in joints. It causes pain and inflammation. It also leads to deformities.

There is acute inflammation in one of the joints at a time, mostly in joints of extremities or big toe.

4. Bursitis

It is the inflammation of the synovial bursa, that is the fluid-filled sac present between the joints, muscles and tendon for cushioning. It causes irritation, swelling, tenderness of joints.

It may be caused due to infection, autoimmune diseases or injury. It is often caused due to overuse and excessive movement, mostly due to occupational work. Shoulders, knees and elbows are commonly affected areas.

5. Infectious Arthritis

Arthritis may also be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. Staphylococci, pneumococci can damage joint cartilage by pus formation. Tuberculosis of the joints can cause a lot of destruction in the adjacent bones.

Some fungi also cause joint inflammation. Some of the viruses such as Rubella virus also causes joint inflammation.

This was a brief note on Disorders of Joints. Explore notes on Disorders of Bones and other important concepts related to NEET, only at BYJU’S.

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