RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Universe And Organic Evolution Solutions is the best resource that helps the students to get a general overview of the concepts and topics taught in class from Chapter 16 of Class 10 Science textbook. Earth is considered as the centre of the universe. Learn more about Origin of the Universe, Theories, Organic Evolution and so on from Chapter16 of RBSE Class 10 Science. It deals with these concepts in-depth. Mastering these concepts and topics can be challenging. Hence, for the convenience of students, we have listed here the best resource that can help the students to prepare most competently for the board exams. RBSE Class 10 Solutions of Chapter 16 Science, Universe and Organic Evolution help the students to understand the concepts thoroughly.
We have given here the list of chapter-wise solutions from the Class 10 Chapter 16 Science Solutions of RBSE. These questions cover all the key topics from the chapter and also consists of solutions to the questions asked at the end of the chapter in the textbook.
Rajasthan Board Class 10 Science Chapter 16- BYJU’S Important Questions & Answers
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Objective Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1. What was present before the creation of Sristi?
(d) None of these
Answer: (d) None of these
2. Which scientist revived the idea of a stable universe?
(d) Stanley Miller
Answer: (c) Einstein
3. Which is the most acceptable theory regarding the origin of the universe?
(a) Stable universe
(b) Big Bang
(d) Indian concept
Answer: (b) Big Bang
4. About how many years ago, photosynthetic life was present on the Earth?
Answer: (a)4 billion
5. A group of organisms capable of maintaining their nature over many generations is called ______
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Very Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1.Which sukta of the Rig Veda discusses the Origin of the Universe in detail ?
Answer: Rig Veda : 10- 126 , that is Sukta 10 of the hymn 126 of Rig Veda discusses the Origin of the Universe.
2. Can life be considered as a group of molecules?
Answer: No, life is not just a group of molecules.
3. Presently life is based upon which molecule?
Answer: Currently life is completely based on the DNA.
4. What has changed in scientific thinking about the early atmosphere of earth?
Answer: According to scientific thinking, the change reflected is that the primitive thinking may not have been of a reducing nature.
5. What is the history of development of each species called?
Answer: The history of development of each species is called Phylogeny.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
6. How can one get information about extinct organisms?
Answer: The main source of information about extinct organisms is their remnants, symbols, impressions or traces of ancient organisms also called fossils. Fossils can narrate to us the story of the old world.
7. In which form was the fossil of Archaeopteryx found?
Answer: A fossil of Archaeopteryx was found and it was in the form of an impression, which led to the discovery that birds originated from creeping organisms.
8. What are vestigial organs? Write the name of one vestigial organ of the human body.
Answer: Vestigial organs are the organs in some organisms that have no function or use. Vermiform appendix and wisdom tooth in the current human body are examples of vestigial organs that have no use.
9. Can life from outside the earth, enter on the earth?
Answer: Following the development of new tools of research, most of the scientists have come to the conclusion that the origin of the first organism did not happen on earth. Some of the micro fossils obtained from the Hadean period reveal that photosynthetic life on earth existed some 4 billion years ago, which leads us to rethink the concept that the matter of the origin of life on earth by chemical process is just 58 million years. Hence, the only option is that life on earth has come from some outside space. According to the scientists of the Hadean era, life on earth showered in the form of subtle pores. Also, based on strong evidence of today, it is established that subtle particles can emerge from the atmosphere of one planet and on successfully completing a long and difficult journey of space, they can descend on another planet.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Essay Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
10. Explain the Indian thinking about the origin of sristi.
Answer: The Indian thinking about the origin of sristi or creation of the universe started during the vedic period. Even if it’s only the last few years that scientists have begun to address the questions related to the origin of the universe, Indian sages, however, have worked on this since the ancient times. Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda has discussed evolution of the universe at length. Meanwhile, according to swami Vivekananda the consciousness has created the universe by the multiplication of consciousness. There are also different types of creatures and objects visible in the world that are basically in the same form as consciousness. This belief is called Advaita. Looking around the universe, the fundamental rule of the universe is established. The rule states that everything starts with a seed. It grows during development to reach the peak and gets destroyed at the end by converting to the seed. Take the example of a bird starting its life from an egg; This cycle of egg and bird continues. Universe and atoms are thus created in the same way. The term of being present in the subtle form for some time and its reappearance in the world is called a kalpa. There are many such kalpas running in the universe. All the objects that come under it, such as the complete universe to the atoms move around in a floating manner. Sristi constructivism (design theory) is similar to this same Indian ideology.
11. Explain the theory of Biocentrism of the creation of the universe. How is it different from the materialistic approach?
Answer: The creation and operation of the universe cannot be explained only on the basis of the physical rules. According to the theory of biocentrism, the world exists because of life. The world has originated for the development and creation of life. Also, there is no physical existence of Einstein’s place and time concept, as per the theory. Despite that, all these are the senses of human consciousness. The supporters of Biocentrism claim that every event of nature seemed to have occurred in human interest. Take the example of the meteor that fell on the earth millions of years ago to wipe out dinosaurs. This fell in interest of mankind as it paved the way for rapid evolution of mammals. Darwin’s explanation of development on the basis of fortuitous incidences is fine at the children’s level, but is not that easy. Without a self sustained plan, biological evolution cannot be properly explained. Robert Lanza and astrologist Bob Berman came up with the theory of Biocentrism in 2007. Alternatively, the physical theories believe that life evolved in consonance with the laws of physics and chemistry. It establishes that creation of life was because of various physical and chemical changes instead of the other way round as in biocentrism. A group of materialists under the leadership of Stephen Hawkins did not accept the existence of consciousness. These scientists were confident that in the coming years the complete secret of creation will be dependent on the materialistic means only.
12. What is the Big Bang Concept of Creation? How is it different from the Indian Concept?
Answer: It is believed, according to the Big Bang Concept of Creation that 13.8 billion years back, the origin of the universe was the result of a great explosion in a very intense and extremely hot body. Following the explosion in an object, its components spread far and wide, likewise the parts of the universe are still spreading and moving away from each other. Measuring the red replacement of supernovas has revealed the fact that the speed of the spread of the Universe is increasing. Some of the evidence of this success includes excessive presence of lightweight elements in the universe, the existence of micro radiation in space, the presence of giant structures and success in understanding the Hubble’s Law. This, however, is not the absolute truth. Before the Big Bang theory there was no Time, Space and Matter. Indian cosmology, talks about some form of consciousness that creates and sustains the universe, while Big Bang theory deals with the physical process that resulted in the creation of the universe. Nevertheless, Indian Cosmology also talks about intermittent periods of holocaust, which is similar to the Big Bang Concept that created the universe.
13. What do you understand by biological evolution? How according to you biological-evolution has taken place?
Answer: According to the concept of organic evolution every living being that we see today has evolved from a common ancestor. That is, every life form has originated from the first life form that appeared on the earth. Over a long period of time, numerous species of the modern times have evolved through various stages. Howevers, despite these variations in the appearances of the skeletons of the forelimbs of the human, cheetah, fins of fish and wings of bats the fundamental structure remains the same, thus establishing the theory that all of them originate from the same ancestor. Lamarck tried to explain the evolution of new species. He gave the example of a lizard that used the crawling motion neglecting the arms and the arms disappeared in the long run, thus resulting in the origin of snakes. Meanwhile, Charles Darwin has explained the origin of species via natural selection. He went on to add that organisms of every species come in large numbers and no two organisms are alike. Since there are a large number of organisms, they fight against each other for food, space and others. In this struggle, only the organisms that are best suited in nature produce a huge amount of offspring or new species. Learn more in depth about biological evolution here along with the process of evolution.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Additional Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
14. What are mutations?
Answer: The sudden changes in organisms that result in the origin of new species are known as mutations by Hugo De Vries, a Dutch botanist.
15. What causes the alterations in the characters of the organisms?
Answer: The DNA found in the cells of the organisms normally control their properties. These properties are decoded with the help of a chain of 4 nitrogenous bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine. These are represented by four letters, A, G, C and T, respectively. If there is any change in the sequence of the nucleotides, then it could cause alterations in the characters of the organisms.
16. What is the Ekpyrotic model? Explain.
Answer: The Ekpyrotic model for the origin of the universe was presented by Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University. As per the theory, our current universe is the result of a collision of two three dimensional worlds in a space with an extra fourth spatial dimension. Even though this theory believes in the expansion of the universe, it is different from the Big Bang theory. The universe is expanding like a rubber membrane. Meanwhile, there is no central point of increasing distance even if the structures of the universe are moving away from each other.
17. Explain the Physical Theory of Origin of Life, as per Oparin.
Answer: Russian Scientist, Alexander Oparin believed that the origin of one organism occurs from the other organism. However, he claimed that this was not true of the very first organism, and they would have originated from inanimate objects only. He explained that life has evolved from a complex combination of chemical substances. The presence of methane in various celestial bodies was a sign that the primitive atmosphere on earth was highly reducing in nature because of the presence of ammonia, methane, water vapour and hydrogen. Compounds formed by the combination of these elements further underwent more combinations to produce complex compounds. Various configurations of these complex compounds have set the foundation of life. Over a period of time, primitive life forms have through a long term struggle and competition to develop a living world that we see today. Haldane, meanwhile, expanded the views of Oparin. He went on to divide the events from the origin of the earth to the creation of the nucleated cell into eight stages.
18. How can the age of a fossil be determined?
Answer: The age of a fossil can be determined using two different methods. The fossils found by deeper excavations are believed to be older. The age of a fossil can also be determined or calculated using the radiocarbon dating.
19. What is the experiment conducted by Miller?
Answer: Stanley Miller had developed an electric discharge device for experimentation. The device with a bottom flask that is round had an electric immersion bulb and a condenser. The bottom flask was filled with water, while air was evacuated from the system and filled with methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the 2:1:2 ratio. The water is boiled with the help of electric discharges and the steam is created thus resulting in continuous rotation of gas. Following the condensation, the water vapour released from the electric discharge pump is collected for further analysis. These condensed fluid obtained after a week contained electric discharges. Fluid analyses also established the presence of several organic compounds such as amino acids, acetic acids and so on.
20. During the development of life, did DNA come first or the protein?
Answer: It is quite possible that DNA was not present in the initial stages of life and it was RNA, along with its functions that played the role of DNA and proteins.
21. What are species?
Answer: A group of organisms that are capable of maintaining its nature/ characters over generation are called species.
22. What is phylogeny of a species?
Answer: Every species on the earth has developed from a pre-existing species or as a result of accumulation of variations because of different reasons in the pre- existing species. Hence, each species has its own history of evolution. This history is called phylogeny of species. The phylogeny of different species can be elucidated using the various scientific methods.
23. What was the theory put forward by Margulis?
Answer: Lynn Margulis, was an evolutionary biologist in 1995 and he disproved Darwin’s theory of evolution as he stated that the road to evolution in nature is marched through mutual cooperation and not through competition. Margulis claimed that history of animals as per the evolutionists began from the last 50 million years, while life on earth came to existence long before that. Fossils with an age of more than 400 million years have been reported.
24. What is a kalpa?
Answer: Kalpa is the term of being present in the subtle form for sometime and its reappearance in the world.
25. What is universe and cosmology?
Answer: The whole assembly of bright sun, innumerable stars, some planets and other bodies is called the universe. Meanwhile, the study related to the universe is known as cosmology.
We, at BYJU’S, have provided RBSE Solutions for Class 10 to help students solve the problems easily while using it as a reference study material. Other important references include the RBSE textbooks, sample papers and more.