Biodiversity is composed of two words: Bio, which means life and diversity, which means variation. Thus, Biodiversity can be considered as the diversity found amongst living organisms on the earth. Here, these RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Biodiversity and Its Conservation Solutions cover the concepts related to Biodiversity. These solutions are the most useful resources that help the students to get a proper foundation of the chapter. Students who practice these solutions can easily revise the complete chapter thoroughly. Answering these questions from the RBSE Class 10 Solutions for Chapter 19 Science also enables the students to understand all the major topics from the chapter thoroughly.
Students are advised to solve these chapter wise important questions from the RBSE Class 10 Science for practice, thus enabling students to prepare most competently for the Class 10 board exams. Here, we have mentioned the collection of important questions from Chapter 19, Biodiversity and Its Conservation of RBSE Class 10 Science Textbook. Answering these questions help students to score high marks, as they get a proper foundation of the subject, before moving on to higher classes. .
Rajasthan Board Class 10 Science Chapter 19- BYJU’S Important Questions & Answers
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Objective Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1. Unit to measure the balance of an ecosystem is_________
(b) Animal diversity
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) Species
2. In terms of its agricultural input, India acquires ___ place.
Answer: (c) Seventh
3. The total number of Biodiversity hotspots in the world are_____
Answer: (c) 34
4. National Aquatic Animal of India is ______
(a) Gangetic Dolphin
(b) Star Fish
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) Gangetic Dolphin
5. Which among the following hotspot are present in India?
(a) East Malaysian Islands
(b) None of these
(d) Madagascar Islands
Answer: (c) Indo-Burma
6. International Biodiversity Day is observed on ______
(a) 24 May
(b) 23 May
(c) 22 May
(d) 21 May
Answer: (c) 22 May
7.International Biodiversity Year was observed on_______
Answer: (b) 2010
8. Presently, how many animal species are on the verge of extinction?
9. Due to misconception, which of the following organisms is killed by the villagers?
(a) Monitor Lizard
(b) Godawan (Great Indian Bustard)
Answer: (a) Monitor Lizard
10. At which of the following places was the earth summit in 1992 held?
(c) New Delhi
(d) Rio de Janeiro
Answer: (d) Rio de Janeiro
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Very Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1. Write three levels of biodiversity?
Answer: Three levels of biodiversity are Ecosystem diversity, Genetic diversity and Species diversity.
2.What percentage of total species found in the world have been identified by the scientists?
Answer: As per estimate, scientists have identified only 7% of the species found in the world.
3. What are biodiversity hotspots?
Answer: Biodiversity hotspots are regions where enormous biodiversity can be found.
4.Which is the national aquatic animal of India?
Answer: The Gangetic Dolphin was declared as the National Aquatic Animal of India, in 2019.
5. Write names of Biodiversity hotspots of India.
Answer: The biodiversity hotspots of India are Eastern Himalayas (including states of East Himalayan regions such as Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and west Bengal) and Western Ghat (includes the state of Kerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Tami Nadu). Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot is spread across many countries (China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia and so on), covering India, as well.
6. Write names of two endemic species.
Answer: Two of the endemic species include Lemur and Nilgiri Tahr or Lion Tailed Macaque Monkey.
7. Write names of two endangered species.
Answer: Cheetah, Tiger, Leopard are all endangered species.
8. Which position does India have in terms of its biodiversity?
Answer: India, accounts for 7% to 8% of the total biodiversity found in the world. It is included amongst the 17 mega biodiversity rich countries. On account of its agricultural diversity and input, India has been placed 7th position in the world.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
9. What is biodiversity? Explain.
Answer: The diversity, asymmetry, and ecological complexity found among organisms is known as biodiversity. Biodiversity is made up of two words-Bio means life and diversity means variation. Hence, the meaning of biodiversity is the diversity found among living beings on the earth. It is a comprehensive term because the world of living organisms include the complete flora and fauna of the earth.
10. Explain the biodiversity found in East Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot.
Answer: Some of the areas that the East Himalayan Biodiversity hotspots cover includes states like Assam, Sikkm, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal. This himalayan mountain range is blessed with rich biodiversity, spread across 7,50,000 sq.km area and contains 10, 000 plant species, 3160 species of which are endemic. Other than that it contains 300 species of mammals (12 endemic), 997 species of birds (15 endemic), 176 reptile species (15 endemic), 105 amphibian species (40 are endemic) and 296 species of fish, of which 33 are endemic. Meanwhile, some of the key animals found in this area include Himalayan Tahr, Golden Langur, Hoolock Gibbon, Pygmy Dog, Flying Squirrel, Snow Leopard, Gangetic Dolphin and so on.
11. Which countries are included in the Indo Burma biodiversity hotspot?
Answer: The Indo- Burma Biodiversity hotspot covers about 23,73,000 sq km extending in tropical East Asia covering counties such as China, India, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia.
12. What is the impact of invasion of foreign species on diversity?
Answer: Many times the existence of the local species is threatened by the desirable or undesirable influx of foreign species, thus causing imbalance to the whole ecosystem. Interference in the system of nature without a concrete thinking not only affects the local ecosystem but also messes up the social and economic system of the concerned area. Take the example of 50 years ago, when deers were introduced in Andaman Nicobar Islands, disregarding the fact that there were no natural consumers of deer. This caused the number of deers to increase rapidly and they fed on local plants at a high pace and then turned to the fields to get their food. This caused disruption to the system of nature.
13. “Export of frog legs has adversely affected biodiversity.” Explain the statement.
Answer: Frog legs are a delicacy highly popular with the people of Europe and North America. Many countries export frogs for this reason, India is one amongst it. In 1983, India exported 3650 metric tonnes of frogs, resulting in the drastic fall in the population of frogs in the forests, also causing a population explosion of insects that are food to frogs.
14. Illustrate the National level efforts made for the conservation of biodiversity.
Answer: In 2002, the Central Government established the Biodiversity Act 2002, keeping in mind the commitment of India towards the International Treaty on Biodiversity-CBD(Convention on Biodiversity). This ACT had three main objectives. They are:
- Protection of biodiversity
- Sustainable use of biodiversity in such a way that it can remain for a long time
- Even distribution of the benefits obtained from utilization of biological resources of the country, so that it can reach as many people as possible
There is also a provision for three tier organization in the Biodiversity Act 2002- National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) at the national level, Biodiversity Board at the state level and Biodiversity Management Committees at the local level, in order to achieve these objectives.
15. Write the types of biodiversity conservation.
Answer: Biodiversity is currently preserved in two different ways. They are:
(i) In-situ conservation: The onsite conservation of the living organisms in their natural habitat that is maintained by the man.
(ii) Ex-situ conservation: In this method of biodiversity conservation, the endangered plant and animal species are protected in artificial housing outside their natural habitat.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Essay Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
16. Explain the levels of biodiversity.
Answer: There are three levels of biodiversity:
(a) Species Diversity
Species-a group of organisms whose members are identical in appearance and have the ability to produce their offsprings by reproduction in natural conditions.
The total number of different species of both organisms- plants and animals found in any specified area is called species diversity of that region. Species diversity acts as a scale to measure the balance of an ecosystem.The microbial density and diversity is more times higher than the other organisms on earth. Only 1 gm of soil contains 10 million bacteria and 50,000 fungi.
(b) Genetic Diversity- the variations found in different members of the same species due to the genes or hereditary unit.
This diversity exists between different population groups of one species or different members of a population. The varied characters of the members of the same species inhabiting different ecosystems of the world is an example of genetic diversity. If the genetic variation is higher in a member of a species, the risk for extinction will be lesser for it because it will be able to adapt better to the environment.
(c) Ecosystem Diversity
Ecosystem- A system that is established by mutual interactions among all the living organisms and the prevailing abiotic components in a specified area.
Many types of ecosystems such as the grasslands, moist lands, mountains, sea, tropical forests and so on are found on earth. Because these ecological systems have varied environmental and geographical environments, they differ in flora and fauna.
17. Explain the biodiversity hotspots.
Answer: Biodiversity hotspot is an area where a huge number of diversity is available. About 25 regions across the world have been identified as hotspots in 2019. Biodiversity hotspots account for about 2.3% of the earth’s area. There are primarily two prerequisites for declaring an area as biodiversity hotspot. They are:
(a) Over 0.5% of the total endemic species of the world should be present in that region. In terms of numbers, nearly 1500 endemic species should be present at that place.
(b) About 70% habitation of that area must be redundant, that is human activities have menaced the existence of that area. These areas have been declared biodiversity hotspots as these areas have urgent need for protection. Some of the major biodiversity hotspots include Malaysian islands, Mountains of southwest China, islands of Madagascar, Central America,, Columbia, Central Chile, Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats, Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma, etc. Learn in depth about Biodiversity hotspots here.
18. Illustrate the importance of Biodiversity.
Answer: A natural resource that can fulfill the natural and organic requirements requisite for the life of organisms. It helps to fulfill the basic necessities of human beings. The importance or value of Biodiversity can be found below:
(a) Economic Significance: — Biodiversity provides food, fuel, building wood and sun. To meet the increasing demand by the population, biodiversity is used to boost the agricultural yields, along with varieties of disease resistant, insect resistant crops. Biodiversity of the food grain acts as a boon for humans.
(b) Medicinal Value- Many herbaceous plants are being used for the treatment of many types of diseases.
(i)Protection of food chain- In the food chain, one organism is dependent upon the other. Hence, the extinction of one species results in the danger of termination of the food chain. A rich biodiversity ensures multiple food chains, operating in an ecosystem so that in case of extinction of any species, any other species operating in the food web can conserve the food chain by compensating for the loss.
(ii) Regulation of Nutrient Cycle- Micro-organisms of the soil break down the dead parts of the plants and animals thus replenishing the nutrients back to the plants. Thus, the cycle continues.
(iii) Disposing Environmental Pollutants- Some plants have the property of degrading and absorption of pollutants. A plant called Catharathus Roseus has the ability to disintegrate the deadly explosive chemicals like trinitrotoluene.
(d) Social, Cultural and Spiritual Significance- An outstanding gift of nature, biodiversity has an important role in maintaining life on earth. In honour of the economic, social and cultural significance of biodiversity on the global scale, the International Biodiversity Day was celebrated in 2010.
Know more about the importance of biodiversity
19. Explain the reasons responsible for the loss of biodiversity.
Answer: Extinction of vegetation and animal species in nature or the emergence of a new species is a natural phenomenon. However, currently, the human activities and the indiscriminate destruction of natural resources have led to the depletion of biodiversity. Following are some of the reasons for the biodiversity loss:
(a)Destruction of Natural Habitats- As per the laws of nature, there are specific habitats for every organism to dwell and increase its number. However, to fulfill the growing demands of the ever developing population, townships and agricultural lands are being expanded by destroying these natural habitats. There are about 50 to 300 million species on our planet, 50% of which are found in the tropical forests. But these forests are being destroyed at the rate of 1.7 crore hectare per year. If the forests are destroyed at this rate, then in the next 30 years, about 5% to 10% of the animal and plant species will soon become extinct.
(b)Habitat Fragmentation: Natural habitats of wildlife have been destroyed by the road construction, railways, gas pipelines, electricity lines, dams and more. This has adversely affected the natural activities of wildlife. Feeling unhappy in these activities, the animals then venture into human habitats and are killed by local residents.
(c)Change in Climate-Human activities give rise to more greenhouse gas, resulting in increase in temperature. High temperatures cause the ice to melt rapidly and the water level in the sea to rise rapidly, causing an adverse effect to marine biological life.
(d) Environmental Pollution- It badly affects the plants and animals. Many plants and animals of land and water are destroyed by industrial affluents. Many microorganisms and plants are destroyed by acid rain caused by excess air pollution and also excess use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides to increase agricultural yield have resulted in extinction of microorganisms found in soil.
(e) Overexploitation of natural resources- Man has exploited natural resources for commercial benefit, resulting in extinction of many species.
(f) Commercialisation in Agriculture and Forestry- Today’s farmers use improved seed varieties and hybrid species of livestock, thus causing steep decline in the genetic biodiversity.
(g) Invasion of foreign organisms- The existence of local species are threatened by the desirable or undesirable influx of foreign species, as they cause imbalance in the complete ecosystem. Interference in the system without any concrete thought not only affects the local ecosystem but also messes up the social and economical system of the concerned area.
(h) Ignorance and superstition-Due to superstition and ignorance, the threat to some species increases drastically. In Rajasthan, people consider the breath of Monitor Lizards to be poisonous, hence the lizards are killed on sight.
20. Write an essay on the efforts made for conservation of biodiversity.
Answer: Many efforts are made at the national, international and local level for conserving biodiversity. See the points here:
International Efforts- International Union for Conservation of Nature was founded in 1968, under the auspices of the United Nations. The institution, later in 1972 went on to publish the Red Data Book, after extensive worldwide study of 4 years on plants and animals. With the intent to conserve the biodiversity, organisms of the world were divided into the 5 species. They are:
Extinct species- that are no longer found anywhere like a Dinosaur or a Rhynia plant
Endangered species-that are on the brink of extinction and which if not protected will become extinct soon. Eg. Tiger, Cheetah, Leopard etc
Vulnerable species- whose population is decreasing rapidly and will soon be endangered species. Eg. Yak, Red Panda, Cobra etc.,
Rare species- limited to specific geographical areas. Eg. Red Wolf, Gibbon etc
Insufficiently known species- about which sufficient information is not available.
In 1973, IUCN organized a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), in which many countries agreed to curb the international trade of endangered species.
Meanwhile, biodiversity is currently conserved in two different ways.
(i) In-situ conservation: The onsite conservation of the living organisms in their natural habitat that is maintained by man.
(ii) Ex-situ conservation: In this method of biodiversity conservation, the endangered plant and animal species are protected in artificial housing outside their natural habitat.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 19 Additional Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
21. One of the biodiversity hotspots is partially in India. Which is it?
Answer: Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot covers a lot of countries and is partially in India.
22. Name the biodiversity hotspots that are completely in India.
Answer: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats are the biodiversity hotspots that are completely in India.
23. Describe global warming.
Answer: The phenomenon, where a rise in emission of greenhouse gases leads to an increase in the temperature of earth is known as global warming.
24. Write about Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.
Answer: Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of above 2,373,000 square km is spread across various countries including India. The region it spreads across includes China, India, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. The hotspot area also houses various kinds of species such as 13500 species of plants, 1266 types of amphibians, 433 species of mammals and 1262 types of fish.
25. How many hotspot areas are there totally in the world?
Answer: Total 34 hotspots can be found in the world, currently.
26. The higher the genetic variation of the people, the less the risk of extinction. Why?
Answer: If the genetic variation in the member of species is higher, then there will be lesser risk of extinction, as they have a greater ability to adapt as per the environment. This variation is also the cause of genesis of new members or varieties of species.
27. Write how rich biodiversity can help in conservation of the food chain.
Answer: In a rich biodiversity, there are a large number of food chains that make up the food web and it helps in protecting and preserving the ecosystem. Presence of this biodiversity can help as it easily compensates or replaces the deficiency of a species from the food chain, with another species.
28. Write about the impact of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity.
Answer: While the natural habitat of wildlife was earlier spread about, it is now fragmented by the construction of railways, gas pipelines, roads, canals, electric transmission lines, dams and so on. This has had a bad effect on wildlife. Wild Animals are also at risk from accidents by train or vehicles. To escape this, an animal might stray into human habitat and get killed by the villagers. Nearly half a dozen tigers and other small animals have become victims of accidents on the railway line that passes across the Dudhwa National Park.
29. What are endemic species?
Answer: Species that are found in particular areas or whose distribution or extension is restricted to a specific area are known as endemic species.
30. Why are biodiversity important for humans?
Answer: Biodiversity is important not only for the economy but is also crucial for the environment, society, medical and further reasons.
31. Biodiversity Act 2002 gives provision for three tier organization, which are they?
Answer: There is a provision for three tier organization in the Biodiversity Act 2002- National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) at the national level, Biodiversity Board at the state level and Biodiversity Management Committees at the local level.
32. What was the objective of the National Green Tribunal formed on 2 August 2010?
Answer: The National Green Tribunal formed on 2 August 2010 in India had the objective of bringing the environment into the same lap as the forest, water, air and biodiversity laws.
33. How are the germplasm of the endangered species like the seeds, fruits, pollens, sperm, ovum and so on protected?
Answer: The germplasm of endangered species like the seeds, fruits, pollens, sperm, ovum and so on are protected using the cryopreservation and slow culture technique.
34. In the Ex-Situ method of conservation, what has been set up to protect the animal and plant species?
Answer: In the Ex-Situ method of conservation, Botanical Garden, Seed Bank or Tissue Culture Laboratories are established for the protection of plant species, while Bird houses and aquariums were set up to protect the animals.
35. Where are the genes of the endangered plants and animals preserved?
Answer: The genes of the endangered plants and animals are preserved in their germination stage in their gene banks.
36. What is the Red Data Book?
Answer: International Union for Conservation of Nature published the Red Data Book, after extensive worldwide study of 4 years on plants and animals. The book enlists the disappearing species, their habitat and their present number.
37. Why did the IUCN divide the organisms of the world into five categories?
Answer: IUCN divided the organisms of the world into five categories with the intention of their conservation.
38. Why is Lantana, planted in the Botanical Garden of Calcutta a local menace for biodiversity?
Answer: British had brought the Lantana and planted it in the Botanical Garden of Calcutta in 1807. However, soon it spread throughout the subcontinent. It became a menace for the local biodiversity as it does not allow other plants to grow near it nor do animals consume it.
39. Which plant is a treatment for Malaria fever?
Answer: The treatment for incurable malaria fever was found in the bark of Cinchona plant.
40. How was Leukemia (Blood Cancer) treated?
Answer: Vincristine and Vinblastine were used for the treatment of incurable Leukemia (Blood Cancer).
41. From where was dwarf species of paddy developed?
Answer: The dwarf species of paddy was developed from the Dee-Geo-woo-gen variety found in Taiwan.
42. What was responsible for the green revolution?
Answer: Development of dwarf varieties of wheat from Naren-10 variety of wheat, found in Japan, was responsible for the green revolution.
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