RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Immunity and Blood Groups Solutions help students to get an overall grasp of the concepts and topics taught in class from Chapter 4 of Class 10 Science textbook. Science, as a subject is descriptive and informative. Here, in Chapter 4 of RBSE Class 10 Science textbook, the subject discusses various aspects of the human body, along with concepts such as pathogens, immunity, antibodies and so on. Mastering these concepts and topics can be challenging. Hence, we have compiled here the best resource that can help the students to prepare most competently for the board exams. RBSE Class 10 Solutions of Chapter 4 Science, Immunity and Blood Groups help the students to comprehend the concepts and master the subject thoroughly.
We have listed here the chapter-wise solutions from the Class 10 Chapter 4 Science of RBSE. These questions covering all the main topics from the chapter, also consist of solutions to the questions asked at the end of the chapter in the textbook.
Rajasthan Board Class 10 Science Chapter 4- BYJU’S Important Questions & Answers
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Objective Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1. Cells used in the immune system are not found in ________________________
(a) Bone marrow
(d) Lymph node
Answer: (c) Stomach
2. Antigenic determinants are found in which of the following?
(b) IgG antibody
(c) 1gM antibody
(d) Plasma cells
Answer: (a) Antigen
3. Which of the following cells is not found in blood?
(a) Red Blood Cells
(b) White Blood Cells
(d) Submucous cells
Answer: (d) Submucous cells
4. Who classified blood into different groups?
(a) Louis Pasteur
(b) Carl Landsteiner
(c) Robert Coach
(d) Edward Jenner
Answer: (b) Carl Landsteiner
5. Major reason for Erythroblastosis foetalisis.
(a) Blood transfusion in child
(b) Rh incompatibility
(c) ABO incompatibility
(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘c’
Answer: (b) Rh incompatibility
6. Which day is celebrated as the organ donation day in India?
(a) 13 September
(b) 13 August
(c) 13 May
(d) 13 June
Answer: (b) 13 August
7. Which of the diseases do not occur due to the carelessness observed during blood transfusion?
(a) Hepatitis B
(d) Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease
Answer: (b) Malaria
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
1. How many different types of defense mechanisms are found in humans?
Answer: There are two main types of defense mechanisms-the innate defense mechanism and the acquired defense mechanism.
2. How many types of antibodies are found in humans?
Answer: There are five types of antibodies found in humans. They are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and IgD.
3. What should be the minimum molecular weight of an antigen?
Answer: The minimum molecular weight of an antigen is 6000 Dalton or more.
4. Write the name of the antibody found on the surface of the mast cell?
Answer: IgE antibody primarily works on the mast cell.
5. Which blood group is a universal blood donor?
Answer: A person with an O blood group is called a universal donor.
6. Which Rh factor is most important?
Answer: Rh. D is the most important and predominantly immunogenic.
7. What do you mean by Allogeneic transfusion?
Answer: Allogeneic transfusion is when blood collected from another person is used.
8. Write down the name of the alleles which control the blood groups?
Answer: The control of the blood groups depends on the mutual interaction of the three alleles (IA, IB and IA or i).
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
9. Define Antibodies
Answer: Antigens (Ag) are the outer pathogens or substances that enter the bodies and activate B lymphocytic cells to differentiate in plasma cells that secretes antibodies. Antibodies (Ab) are proteins produced due to the interaction of antigens with B cells found in the body and can get specifically coupled with that specific antigen. Pairing is a fundamental requirement for the success of the immune system and is supported by Antigen’s structural uniqueness.
10. What are antigenic determinants?
Answer: Antigens are known to combine with antibodies and produce some Antigen-Antibody complexes. However, the whole molecule of an antigen will not interact with the antibody. In fact, only a particular part of the antigen will connect with the antibody molecule. The part of the antigen that interacts with the antibodies is known as Antigenic determinant or Epitope. In proteins, a chain of 6 to 8 amino acids function as the antigenic determinant.
11. What is the function of hinge in an antibody?
Answer: Antibody is in the shape of Y, an english alphabet.The flexible point of origin of the Y structure of most of the bodies is called the hinge region. Since it is flexible, this region allows for the variable portion of the Antibody to adjust as per the size of the antigen and react with it.
12. What is blood?
Answers: A thick and sticky fluidic living tissue that is red in colour and flows through the blood vessels is blood. Blood is made up of a non living liquid medium, the plasma and the living cells, the blood corpuscles. The three blood corpuscles in the blood are red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles and platelets.
13. Explain ABO Blood Grouping.
Answer: An Australian Scientist, Karl Landsteiner classified blood into various blood groups, based on the presence or absence of several Antigens on the surface of the Red Blood Corpuscles. These Antigens can range from proteins to glycoproteins, carbohydrates and glycolipids and are synthesized from single allele related genes that are inherited from the parent. Two Antigens, Antigen A and Antigen B are located on the surface of the Red Blood Corpuscles. As per the presence or absence of these Antigens, four blood groups A, B, AB and O have been formed. A type blood has A Antigen on the surface of the RBC and B type have B Antigen on the surface, while AB type have both A and B on the surface However, absence of both the Antigens on the surface produces O blood group. This classification is known as ABO blood grouping.
14. What is Rh factor? Explain its significance.
Answer: Rh factor is a protein of about 417 amino acids, discovered in Macaca Rhesus, a species of monkey. This protein is also found on the surface of the human Red Blood Corpuscles. Other than the A and B Antigen, another Antigen found on the surface of the Red Blood Corpuscles is Rh antigen. Blood groups devoid of Rh Antigen are called Rh-, while the presence of the Rh antigen on the surface of the RBC results in Rh+ blood group. Five different Rh factors are found in human blood. Matching of the blood group as well as the Rh factor is important for blood transfusion. If a RH+ Blood is transfused to a person with Rh- blood, then the recipient’s body will produce IgG antibodies that destroy the RBCs by agglutination, thus resulting in increased levels of bilirubin in blood. This adversely affects the liver and spleen, causing the person to die from renal failure.
15. What is blood donation? Explain.
Answer: Method used to transfer blood or blood like platelets, plasma and so on from one person to another one’s circulatory system is known as blood transfusion. A French doctor Jean Baptist Dennis carried out the first blood transfusion in 1667. Blood transfusion is necessary for accident victims, at times of excessive bleeding, if there is serious blood deficiency, during surgery, in times of deficiency of blood platelets, for patients of haemophilia, anaemic patients and more. This helps to save lives.
16. What are the precautions to be taken during blood donation?
Answer: Matching of ABO antigen in the blood of the patient and the donor is done. Donor’s blood is tested to confirm the absence of any pathogen or harmful substance. The Rh factor in the blood of the patient and the donor is matched. Blood is stored in refrigerated conditions. Protect the collected blood from contamination. Blood collection and transfusion are carried out in the presence of a medical practitioner.
17. Explain the need for organ donation.
Answer: Donation of a tissue or an organ by a dead or living person to another person is called organ donation. The organ that is donated by the donor is then transplanted into the recipient’s body, so that the person’s life is saved and they can go on to live a happy life. In this, humans are being used for the well being of other humans. After death, organs like kidney, liver, eyes and other organs can be donated for the needy person.
18. Explain the gene types that are responsible for ABO blood groups.
Answer: There are many different blood groups, the ABO blood groups, the control of expression which lies with the coordination of three alleles. Part of the same genes, all these Alleles are represented by IA, IB and I0 or i. The Antigen A and B found on the surface of the RBC are produced by Allele IA and IB, respectively. Also, I0 or i are recessive and do not produce any blood antigen.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Essay Questions-Important Questions and Solutions
19. Explain the structure of antibodies.
Answer: Antibody, in the shape of english alphabet Y is made up of 4 structural units inclusive of one heavier and bigger unit termed as ‘H’, while another unit is lighter and smaller chain of polypeptides and is called ‘L’. Check to know the structure of the antibodies in detail.
20. Explain Erythroblastosis foetalisis.
Answer: Erythroblastosis foetalisis is a condition that results from Rh incompatibility in pregnancy, if Rh negative mother is pregnant with Rh positive child. During the first pregnancy of Rh negative mother with Rh positive child, IgG antibodies are developed in the mother’s body, when the mother’s blood gets mixed up with foetal blood during childbirth. Birth of the first child may be normal, however, it gets complicated during the second pregnancy, if that child is also Rh positive. Rh antibodies in the mother’s blood react with Rh factor in the blood of the foetus, thus causing the death of the child. If the child survives, it would be weak and may suffer from hepatitis. This condition is erythroblastosis fetalis. In order to prevent this, a vaccine of anti IgG antibody (anti Rh. D) called Rhogam antibodies is given to the mother, within 24 hours of birth of the first child.
21. How is the process of blood transfusion carried out? Explain.
Answer: For blood donation, at first the donor is examined to see if he or she is medically fit. Then post the examination, the blood from the donor is collected in a sterilized pouch that also contains anticoagulants. Collected blood is then stored in the refrigerator to prevent bacterial growth and to regulate the cellular metabolism in the blood. The stored blood is also tested for Rh factor, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV and so on. The donor is also kept for medical surveillance to check if any issue arises as a result of donating blood. Then, once the blood of the patient is matched with the donor, the blood transfusion is then carried out via intravenous mode.
22. Explain the importance of blood group hereditary.
Answer: There are many different blood groups, the ABO blood groups, the control of expression which lies with the coordination of three alleles. Part of the same genes, all these Alleles are represented by IA, IB and I0 or i. The Antigen A and B found on the surface of the RBC are produced by Allele IA and IB respectively. Also, I0 or i are recessive and do not produce any blood antigen. On the basis of the types of alleles present, 6 gene formats of blood are found in humans. These genes show mendelian inheritance. Blood group inheritance helps to determine paternity dispute. In-depth explanation found in this article.
23. What is the valence of the antigen?
Answer: The part of the antigen molecule that reacts with the antibody molecule is known as the antigenic determinant or epitome. A protein can have many antigenic determinants. The total number of an epitope is known as the valence of the antigen. Valence of most bacterial antigens is 100 or more.
24. What is the acquired defense mechanism?
Answer: Also known as the adaptive or specific immunity, the acquired defense mechanism hosts specific attacks on specific microorganisms or objects. Antibodies are synthesized in this type of immunity. The antibodies, thus produced, react specifically with antigens, thus stimulating the Cell Mediated Immunity and eliminating the antigen from the body. This kind of immunity is of two types-active immunity and passive immunity. Learn in detail the active and passive immunity.
25. What are the factors that work towards innate immunity?
Answers: Innate Immune System is composed of cells and proteins that are present and always ready to fight against microbes in the infection area. Innate Immune System is present from the time of our birth. Physical barriers, chemical barriers and cellular barriers work for innate immunity. In innate immunity, the same mechanism is applied towards all antigens.
After reading through Rajasthan Board 10 Class Science Book, students must attempt the Rajasthan Board Class 10 previous years question papers to understand the RBSE Science paper pattern.
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