Physics is the discipline of science, especially concerned with natural phenomena, properties of matter and associated energy. Students can learn the subject by referring to the West Bengal Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus and planning their studies. Studying physics will help in understanding the physical behaviour of the matter around us at various scales. WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus is prescribed by the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, popularly called as WBCHSE. WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus will give an idea about the topics and concepts covered under the subject.
WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus is designed by the jury of subject matter experts. They chose the topics as to maintain the standard of class 12 without pressurising the students. WBCHSE Class 12 Physics enfolds practical sessions for better understanding. WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus covers diverse area starting from classical physics to modern Physics comprising all major streams, namely – mechanics and properties of matter, heat and thermodynamics, waves and physical optics, electrostatics, current electricity, modern physics.
The topics studied in WBCHSE Class 12 under Physics includes – Dynamics of rotational motion, gravitation, thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, waves, physical optics, introduction of electrostatics, electrostatic field and magnetism, capacitance and capacitors, heating effect of current, electromagnetism, alternating current, electromagnetic waves, semiconductors and electronics, quantum theory.
Students can go through the unitwise marks distribution mentioned in the table below.
Unitwise Marks Distribution From 2021-22 Syllabus
|Unit – I Electrostatics||10|
|Unit – II Current Electricity||08|
|Unit – III Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism||10|
|Unit- IV- Electromagnetic induction & Alternative Current||06|
|Unit- VI Optics||15|
|Unit- VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter||06|
|Unit- VIII Atoms and Nuclei||06|
|Unit- IX Electronic Devices||06|
WBCHSE Class 12 Physics theory syllabus for the current year 2021-22 is mentioned below.
Unit – I: Electrostatics
Chapter-I:. Electric charges and Coulomb’s Law.
Electric Charges; conservation of charges, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Chapter-2: Electric field and Gauss’s Theorem.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a electric dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Guess’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire and uniformly charged infinite plane sheet.
Chapter-3: Electrostatic potential.
Electrostatic potential, potential difference, relation between electric field and potential, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electric potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Chapter-4: Capacitors and Dielectrics.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit – II: Current Electricity
Chapter-1: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current.
Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-1 characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and E.M.F. of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Chapter-2: Electric network rules and electrical measurements.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge and metre bridge.
Potentiometer ; principle and it’s applications to measure potential difference and for comparing e.m.f. of two cells, measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit – III: Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism
Chapter-1: Concept and laws of magnetic Field
Concept of magnetic field, Orested’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and it’s application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and it’s applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Chapter-2: Force on a Charge and current.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter-3: Magnetic Dipole and Earth’s Magnetism.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and it’s magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a resolving electron. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Unit- IV: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter-1: Electromagnetic Induction.
Electromagnetic Induction; Faraday’s law. Induced emf and current; Lens’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance.
Chapter-2: Alternating Current.
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations(qualitative treatment only) ,LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits.
AC generator and transformer.
Unit – V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter-1:. Electromagnetic Waves.
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum ( radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit- VI: Optics : Part A Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter-I: Refraction of light.
Refraction of light, total internal reflection and it’s applications, optical fibres , refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses , thin lens formula, lens -maker’s formula. Magnification power of a lens, combination of thinlenses in contact. Refraction of light through a prism.
chapter-2:. Optical Instruments.
Visual angle and magnifying power. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Part B: Wave Optics
Chapter-1:- Propagation principle of wavefront
Wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.
Chapter-2: Interference of light.
Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
Chapter-3: Diffraction of light.
Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
Unit- VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Chapter-I: Particles Nature of Radiation.
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Chapter-2: Wave Nature of Matter.
Matter waves:-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.
Unit- VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha particle scattering experiment: Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus , Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and it’s variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.
Unit- IX: Electronic Devices
Chapter-I: Band theory of solids
Energy bands in conductors , insulators and Semiconductors.
Chapter-2:-. semiconductor Electronics.
semiconductor diode, 1-V characteristics of diode in forward and reverse bias, diode ad a rectifier.
Special purpose p-n junction diodes; LED, photodiode, solar cell and their Characteristics.
*Few topics or chapters were reduced for the previous year. Details are given below:
WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Practical syllabus
Every student will perform at least 15 experiments (7 from Section A & 8 from Section B). The activities mentioned here should only be for the purpose of demonstration. One Project of three marks is to be carried out by the students.
Evaluation Scheme for Practical Examination
|Two experiments one from each section
(1 out of 3 from Section A & 1 out of 3 from Section B)
|Practical record (experiments & activities)||6 Marks|
|Viva on experiments & project||5 Marks|
(Any 7 experiments out of the following to be performed by the students)
- To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its materials.
- To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
- To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
- To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potention meter.
- To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
- To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half – deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
- To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
- To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.
Activities (For the purpose of demonstration only)
- To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
- To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multi meter.
- To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (ON/OFF) switches, a fuse and a power source.
- To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
- To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
- To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor / rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
(Any 8 experiments out of the following to be performed by the students)
- To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
- To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
- To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v between 1/u and 1/v.
- To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
- To determine angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
- To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
- To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex-lens and plane mirror.
- To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
- To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
- To study the characteristics of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
Activities (For the purpose of demonstration only)
- To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
- Use of multi meter to i) identity base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. (iii)see the un-directional flow of current in-case of a diode and an ED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.
- To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D.R.
- To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
- To observe polarization of light using two polaroids.
- To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
- To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distance of the candle from the Lens/ mirror).
- To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
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