Glucose Chemical Formula

Glucose is a natural form of sugar formed by plants during the process of photosynthesis. Glucose is also found in variable levels in the blood sugar of humans and animals. Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar which is white in color and is soluble in water.

Table of Content

Chemical Formula Of Glucose

Chemical formula C6H12O6
Molecular weight 180.156 g/mol
Chemical names dextrose, blood sugar, corn sugar and grape sugar
Molar mass 180.156 g·mol-1

Structural Formula of Glucose

Structural formula of Glucose is as shown below. Glucose contains 6 carbon atoms and belongs to aldehyde group. Glucose may be found in either linear form or cyclic form. Glucose is the basic energy contributor for the human body.

Characters suggest the structure of Glucose

The open chain structure of glucose is CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO. The following characteristics suggest the structure of glucose.

Reaction due to alcoholic (OH) groups:

There are four secondary  and one primary alcoholic groups  present in the molecule of glucose. The reactions are given below. 

Upon acetylation with acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride , glucose forms penta acetyl derivatives. This shows that the five -OH group is attached to five different carbon atoms.



Glucose is reduced with HI and red phosphorus upon prolonged heating produces n-hexane. This suggests that all the six carbon atoms in the glucose are linked  to form a straight chain.


                Glucose                                   n- hexane


With a mild oxidizing agent  like  bromine water,  glucose is oxidised to  gluconic acid which is a monocarboxylic acid with 6 carbon atoms. This shows that the carbonyl group present in glucose is an aldehydic group.


                   CHO(CHOH)4CH2OH  ⟶ CH2OH(CHOH)4COOH

                          Glucose                                   Gluconic acid

When oxidised with a strong oxidizing agent like concentrated HNO3 ,  glucose is oxidised to a  dicarboxylic acid saccharic acid.  The formation of di carboxylic acid shows the presence of  a primary alcoholic group. We may now conclude that out of these one is primary alcoholic group while other four are secondary alcoholic groups


                    Glucose                                    Saccharic acid

Chemical properties of Glucose:

Action with Tollen’s reagent:

Tollen’s reagent is an ammoniacal silver nitrate solution reacting with a glucose solution, and a shining mirror gets deposited at the bottom of the tube.

CHO(CHOH)4CH2OH + 2Ag(NH3)2OH   ⟶  COOH(CHOH)4CH2OH + 2Ag  + 4NH3 + H2O

Action with Fehling’s solution:

When Fehling solutions heated with glucose solution give red precipitate of Cu2O.

CHO(CHOH)4CH2OH + 2Cu2+  + 4OH   ⟶  COOH(CHOH)4CH2OH + Cu2O  + H2O

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