Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology are the scientific study of the body structure and their functions. A single organism is composed of billions and trillions of cells, tissues, and organs. These structures include both microscopic and macroscopic. Cells are microscopic structures which are examined only under the electronic microscopic, whereas organs and organ systems are macroscopic structures which can be easily seen through our naked eye.

To study in detail about the structures and functions of organisms, the study of Anatomy and Physiology are applied.

Both Anatomy and Physiology are derived from the Ancient Greek language, anatomy meaning study of the structure of organisms and physiology meaning the study of regular mechanisms, and their interactions that function within a living system.

Anatomy

 

Human Anotomy

Anatomy is a branch of natural science and biology which includes: Human anatomy, animal anatomy, and plant anatomy. Among these three, human anatomy was the first studied and applied for examining the internal structures, injuries and the other wounds of an individual.

There are several branches of human anatomy.

  • Macroscopic or Gross anatomy

Macroscopic or Gross anatomy.

This anatomy mainly deals with the study of large body parts those which can be seen easily through our naked eyes. For example Anatomy of the kidney, anatomy of the heart, anatomy of lungs, etc. Gross anatomy is further classified into regional anatomy, systemic anatomy, and surface anatomy.

  1. Regional anatomy: A study of different structures in a particular region.
  2. Systemic anatomy: A study of human structures, the system by system.
  3. Surface anatomy: A study of only internal structures of a human body.
  • Microscopic anatomy

Microscopic anatomy

This anatomy mainly deals with the study of very small and minute structures those which can only be examined through the microscope. For example Different types of cells.  Microscopic anatomy is further classified into cytology and histology. Cytology deals with the study of human blood cells and Histology deal with the study of different tissues in the human body.

  • Developmental Anatomy

This anatomy is mainly used to study the different structural changes in the body which occurs throughout the lifespan. Embryology developmental anatomy is used to know completely about the development process before childbirth.

  • Physiology

Physiology is a branch of natural science and biology which includes the study of the complete functioning system of a body. It is further classified into:

Physiology

  1. System physiology: It is a study of the complete functioning of body systems.
  2. Comparative physiology: It is the study of various characteristics of living organisms
  3. Medical physiology: It is the study of physiological dysfunctions and other diseases related to the functioning of the human body systems.

Important Questions on Anatomy and Physiology

  • Which is the longest bone in the human body?

The femur is considered as the longest bone in the human body.

  • What are the types of Human Anatomy?

The two main types of human anatomy are:

  1. Gross anatomy– It is the study of body structures that are visible to the naked eye. It is also known as macroscopic anatomy.
  2. Microscopic anatomy– It is the study of structures on the cellular level, including cells, tissues, and organs of the body as seen with a microscope.
  • What is the function of the heart valves?

The primary function of the heart valves is to allow backflow of blood.

  • What are the types of Physiology?

Physiology is the study of functions of the human body and is divided into the following types:

  1. Cell physiology- It is the study of the functions of cells.
  2. Special physiology -It is the study of the functions of specific organs.
  3. Systemic physiology -It is the study of the aspects of the function of the body systems.
  4. Pathophysiology – It is the study of the diseases disorders that effects on organ or system functions.
  • Which blood vessels carry oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs?

The pulmonary veins function by carrying oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs

This was a brief introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about Anatomy and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology


Practise This Question

Among the following, which is of a biological origin?