Archegonium: The Female Reproductive Organ of Plants

Archegonium (sing.) or archegonia (plu.) are structures borne on the gametophytes of plants that bear ovum or female gamete. The male counterpart of an archegonium is the antheridium.

Archegonia are characteristic of bryophytes and cryptograms (plants that do not produce seeds), but are usually found in some gymnosperms also.

Structure of the Archegonium

  • It is a flask-shaped structure.
  • It consists of a neck and a swollen base called a venter.
  • The venter contains the egg.
  • The neck protrudes above the surface of the gametophyte.
  • It is composed of four-tier of cells that form an opening called the neck canal.
  • The neck canal cells form a passage for the entry of sperms.
  • The neck canal cells on maturity, sometimes lyse to provide an easy entry for the sperm.

Examples

Marchantia, Selaginella, ferns, mosses, cycads and conifers.

Visit BYJU’S Biology to learn more about plants and their parts.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Is the archegonium male or female?

The archegonium is the female reproductive organ of the plants.

What is the function of the archegonium?

The archegonium consists of the female egg, and serves as a site for fertilisation of the egg and sperm.

Is archegonium present in bryophytes?

Yes, archegonium is present in bryophytes.

What cell is produced in the archegonium?

The archegonium matures to produce one egg at the base of the venter cells.

Do archegonia produce spores?

No, archegonia do not produce spores, the sporophyte produces spores on maturation.

Is the archegonium diploid or haploid?

The archegonium is a haploid structure.

Which gymnosperms have no Archegonia?

Gnetum species does not have archegonia.

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