Difference between bio fertilizer and chemical fertilizer

Fertilizers are food supplements for plants. To increase the soil’s fertility, improve the yield and the production of nutrient-rich crops, fertilizers are added to the soil. In general, these fertilizers can either be obtained naturally or artificially prepared for enhanced productivity of the yields.

These fertilizers are classified into bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers based on the composition and type of materials used.

What is a biofertilizer?

The biofertilizers mainly comprise plant remains, some unique species of microbes and other organic matter, which contain the essential nutrients required for the growth of the plants. Bio fertilizers are environment-friendly, serve as a good source of nutrients, improve the soil texture, destroy disease-causing pathogenic components and also help to retain soil fertility.

Overall, bio fertilizers serve as a good source of nutrients required for the benefit of plants to improve plant productivity and healthier crops.

Acetobacter and Rhizobium are two widely used bio-fertilizers.

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What is Chemical Fertilizer?

Chemical fertilizers are also called synthetic fertilizers, which are used to kill or destroy weeds, fungus, viruses, insects and other living organisms causing harm to plants. These fertilizers are man-made and their composition usually includes various chemical compounds and other treatments to enhance the efficiency of fertilizers.

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Both bio and chemical fertilizers are used as a source of nutrients to improve plant yield and destroy plant pathogens. Chemical fertilizers are extracted and refined, whereas bio fertilizers are minimally processed.

Let’s learn the differences between bio fertilizers and chemical fertilizers.

Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer – Comparisons

Biofertilizer
Chemical fertilizer
Definition
They are composed of natural materials that are extracted from animals, plants and vegetable waste materials. They are composed of non-organic and artificially cultivated elements.
Time of Action
Requires more time for the nutrients of these fertilizers to reach the plant. Work faster than organic fertilizers as they get immediately dissolved in water and supply nutrients to plants.
Type of Resources
Renewable source. Non- renewable source.
Shelf-Life
Shorter shelf life. Longer shelf life.
Soil Life
Makes the soil healthier and more fertile. Soil life will not be enriched or stimulated.
Soil Compaction
Bio fertilizers ensure an airy soil structure. Chemical fertilizers lead to soil acidification.
Salt Content
Bio fertilizers do not contain sodium salts. Chemical fertilizers are very salty.
Effect on the Environment
It is biodegradable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. Repeated applications affect microbial ecosystems and the soil’s pH, a toxic buildup of chemicals in the soil.
Distribution of Nutrients
Have unequal distribution of essential nutrients. Have equal distribution of essential nutrients.
Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
Supports the growth of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Destroys the growth of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria as it contains high acid content.
NPK Ratio – Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Ratio
Very Low. High.
Cost of Fertilizers
It is more expensive compared to chemical fertilizers. It is less expensive compared to bio-fertilizers.
Equipment and Techniques
It is not required as the bio fertilizers are prepared manually. Requires special techniques and equipment.
Examples
Manure, sewage sludge, vermicompost, Ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium chloride and the like.

Also Refer: Difference between Fertilizer and Manure

This article concludes the introduction to biofertilizer and chemical fertiliser and their differences. Stay tuned to BYJU’S Biology to learn more in detail about the different types of fertilisers and their applications.

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