Genetic information is stored in the genome of an organism. The genome comprises DNA molecules that are made up of nucleotide sequences. This DNA undergoes transcription and translation processes to produce proteins. This sequence of DNA which produces mRNA and then the correct protein is termed as the original sequence. The original sequence does not have any errors or mutations.
A mutation is nothing but a change in the DNA sequence. The changes or alterations in the DNA nucleotide result in damaged DNA. The mutated DNA also undergoes translation and transcription. But, the correct protein is not obtained. The mutated sequence might lead to diseases or evolution in an organism.
Causes for Mutation
- An imperfect copy of DNA during cell division.
- Exposure to radiation or chemicals can lead to a breakdown in the DNA sequence.
- Sometimes viral infections can also induce mutations.
Extended Reading: Mutation – A Genetic Change
Difference between Original and Mutated Sequences
|They are DNA sequences with no errors or mutations.||They are DNA sequences with a change or alteration.|
|Original sequences produce normal or regular phenotypes.||Mutated sequences produce new phenotypes.|
|The order of nucleotides does not change, and they finally produce the correct protein.||The order of nucleotides is incorrect, and thus correct protein may not be formed.|
|These sequences help in the normal functioning of an organism.||These sequences might lead to diseased conditions.|
Also, see: Genetic Code
Frequently Asked Questions
What is gene mutation?
The change in the DNA sequence of a gene is termed a gene mutation. This kind of mutation occurs due to alterations in the nucleotide sequence.
What is chromosomal mutation?
Any change in the chromosomal number (ploidy) or the structure of the chromosome (aberrations) is termed chromosomal mutation. The chromosomal aberration might take place due to the addition or deletion of a part of a chromosome. Even rearrangement of the chromosomal segments can lead to chromosomal mutation.
What is DNA sequencing?
It is a process used to determine the order of DNA nucleotides. This DNA sequencing plays a vital role in numerous genographic projects. Also, it is much needed in the fields of biotechnology, medicine and forensic science.
Also Read: Chromosomal Abnormalities
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