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What is Putrefaction?
Putrefaction is the decay of organic matter by the action of microorganisms resulting in the production of a foul smell. It occurs between 10 to 20 days after the death of an organism.
Putrefaction involves the decomposition of proteins, breakdown of the tissues, and liquefaction of the organs. The body is decomposed by the action of putrefying bacteria and fungi, which releases certain gases that infiltrate and deteriorates the body tissues and organs. Putrefying bacteria play a major role in recycling nitrogen from dead organisms.
The time taken for putrefaction depends upon various factors such as temperature, moisture, light, age, cause of death, etc.
Process of Putrefaction
Constant biochemical maintenance is required to utilise the chemical energy of the body. When it is not maintained, it begins the hydrolysis process. The hydrolysis of proteins to water and amino acids is a spontaneous process and is accelerated by various bacteria present in the human gut. This weakens and breaks the tissues of the body. With the further breakdown of proteins, certain organic compounds and gases are excreted by the bacteria, which emit a foul smell like rotten flesh.
During this process, the skin tissues of the body rupture, releasing the bacterial gas. With the continued process of putrefaction, the body finally reaches a stage known as skeletonization, where only the skeleton is left.
Also read: Rigor Mortis
Factors Affecting Putrefaction
Various factors affecting putrefaction are as follows:
The rate of putrefaction increases with the increase in temperature. The optimum temperature assisting in the process of putrefaction is 21℃ to 38℃. The process stops below 0℃ or above 48℃.
If a body is submerged in water or is not exposed to air, the putrefaction process slows down. Moisture and air help in the development of microbes hence speeding up degradation.
Loose-fitting clothes help to retain body heat and speed the putrefaction process. Tight clothes reduce the blood supply to the tissues. The bacteria are also devoid of any nutrients to feed on.
Light inhibits the putrefaction process. The insects prefer to lay eggs in dark areas. Therefore, the areas exposed to light decay slowly compared to the areas exposed to dark.
The body of a person who died at a young age putrifies more quickly than the one who died at an older age. Even the foetuses and the infants putrefy slowly. This is because they are sterile.
A fat body putrefies more quickly than a lean body. This is because the fat body retains more heat and carries more fluids in the tissues.
Cause of Death
The bodies of people who die of infectious diseases putrefy faster than those who died of accidents or violence.
The injuries on the body before death or during postmortem are more prone to bacterial invasions and hence would accelerate the putrefaction process.
Also read: Suspended Animation
The rate of putrefaction is the maximum in air, followed by soil, earth and water. Refrigeration of the body retards the process. The rate increases in tropical climates. The body starts showing a greenish discolouration of the skin within 12-24 hours when exposed to air. The foremost internal sign of putrefaction is green discolouration below the surface of the liver.
The process of putrefaction can be delayed by using carbolic acid, arsenic, strychnine, and zinc chloride in various ways based on their chemical makeup.
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