Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles And Techniques Class 11 Notes - Chapter 12

In this chapter, we will discuss some basic concepts in structure and reactivity of organic compounds, that are formed as a result of covalent bonding. The covalent bonding nature of organic compounds is expressed in terms of orbitals hybridization,where carbon can have sp2, sp, and sp3 hybridized orbitals. Some examples of sp, sp2 and, sp3 hybridized carbons are ethane, ethyne, and methane. The shape of these compounds is easy to understand based on this concept.

Functional Group

The classification of organic compounds can be done on the basis of the functional group they contain or based on their structure. Group of atoms or atoms that are bonded together in a distinctive fashion to determine the chemical and physical properties of compounds is called functional group. Organic compounds are named by following the rules laid down by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Naming according to the IUPAC nomenclature will make it easy for the reader to deduce the structure of the compound from the name itself.

Covalent Bond

When two atoms share one or more than one pair of electrons, that hold them together in a chemical bond is defined as a covalent bond. This bond can be cleaved in different fashions:

  • Heterolytic – Yields carbanions or carbocations
  • Homolytic – Offers free radicals as a reactive intermediate

 

Few Important Questions

  1. Answer the following with an example in brief:
    • (a) Distillation
    • (b) Chromatography
    • (c) Crystallization
  1. Which acid is added to the sodium extract before the addition of silver nitrate to test Halogens? Why?
  2. Distinguish between distillation, steam distillation, and distillation under reduced pressure?
  3. Explain paper chromatography.

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