Science Class 10 Syllabus

First Term Science Syllabus

Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Chemical reactions
Acids, bases and salts
Metals and nonmetals
Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention
Unit II: World of Living
Life processes
Control and coordination in animals and plants
“living being”. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals
Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and coordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination: animal hormones
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric Current
Magnetic effects of current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Unit V: Natural Resources
Sources of energy
Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus nonrenewable sources

First Term Practicals

1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator:

  • a. Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
  • b. Dilute NaOH solution
  • c. Dilute Ethanoic Acid solution
  • d. Lemon juice
  • e. Water
  • f. Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate solution

2. To study the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) by their reaction with:

  • a. Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
  • b. Zinc metal
  • c. Solid sodium carbonate

3. To perform and observe the following reactions and classify them into:

  • i. Combination reaction
  • ii. Decomposition reaction
  • iii. Displacement reaction
  • iv. Double displacement reaction
    • 1) Action of water on quick lime
    • 2) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
    • 3) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
    • 4) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions

4. i) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:

  • a. ZnSO4 (aq)
  • b. FeSO4 (aq)
  • c. CuSO4 (aq)
  • d. Al2(SO4)3 (aq)

ii) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.

5. To study the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I.

6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series.

7 To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel.

8 To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.

9 To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis.

10 To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.

Second Term Science Syllabus

Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Carbon compounds
Periodic classification of elements
Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents
Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties
Unit II: World of Living
Reproduction
Heridity and evolution
Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Childbearing and women’s health
Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Unit III: Natural Phenomenon
Reflection
Refraction
Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.

Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.

Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

Unit V: Natural Resources
Conservation of natural resources
The Regional environment
Our environment
Management of Natural Resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wildlife, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Second Term Practicals

1. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid):

  • i) odour
  • ii) solubility in water
  • iii) effect on litmus
  • iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate

2. To study saponification reaction for preparation of soap.

3. To study the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.

4. To determine the focal length of:

  • i. Concave mirror,
  • ii. Convex lens,

by obtaining the image of a distant object.

5. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.

6. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.

7. To trace the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.

8. To find the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and draw corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.

9. To study homology and analogy with the help of models/charts of animals and models/ charts/ specimens of plants.

10. To identify the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).


Practise This Question

State if the following statement is true or false - Aluminium is more reactive than Magnesium.