Classification Of Solids Based On Crystal Structure

The Classification of Solids based on Crystal Structure is divided into Amorphous solids and Crystalline solids. The table below shows a broad classification of solids.

Classification of Solids – Crystalline and Amorphous

Classification of Solids

A general overview of amorphous and crystalline solids is given below:

  • Nature:
    Crystalline Solids – True Solids
    Amorphous Solids – Pseudo – Solids or super-cooled liquids
  • Geometry:
    Crystalline SolidsParticles are arranged in a repeating pattern. They have a regular and ordered arrangement resulting in a definite shape.
    Amorphous Solids – Particles are arranged randomly. They do not have an ordered arrangement resulting in irregular shapes
  • Melting Points
    Crystalline Solids – They have a sharp melting point
    Amorphous Solids – They do not have sharp melting points. The solid tends to soften gradually over a temperature range
  • Heat of Fusion: (The change in enthalpy when a substance is heated to change its state from solid to liquid.)
    Crystalline Solids – They have a definite heat of fusion.
    Amorphous Solids – They do not have a definite heat of fusion
  • Isotropism:
    Crystalline Solids – Isotropic in nature, i.e., the value of any physical property (e.g. refractive index, conductivity, etc) is same when seen from any direction.
    Amorphous Solids – Anisotropic in nature. i.e., physical properties will not be the same in every direction.
  • Cleavage Property
    Crystalline Solids – When cutting with a sharp edge, the two new halves will have smooth surfaces
    Amorphous Solids – When cutting with a sharp edge, the two resulting halves will have irregular surfaces
  • Rigidity:
    Crystalline Solids – They are rigid solids and applying mild forces will not distort its shape.
    Amorphous Solids – They are not rigid, so mild effects may change the shape.

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A crystalline solid                  

[Kerala CET (Med.) 2003]

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