The Classification of Solids based on Crystal Structure is divided into Amorphous solids and Crystalline solids. The table below shows a broad classification of solids.
Classification of Solids – Crystalline and Amorphous
A general overview of amorphous and crystalline solids is given below:
Crystalline Solids – True Solids
Amorphous Solids – Pseudo – Solids or super-cooled liquids
Crystalline Solids – Particles are arranged in a repeating pattern. They have a regular and ordered arrangement resulting in a definite shape.
Amorphous Solids – Particles are arranged randomly. They do not have an ordered arrangement resulting in irregular shapes
- Melting Points
Crystalline Solids – They have a sharp melting point
Amorphous Solids – They do not have sharp melting points. The solid tends to soften gradually over a temperature range
- Heat of Fusion: (The change in enthalpy when a substance is heated to change its state from solid to liquid.)
Crystalline Solids – They have a definite heat of fusion.
Amorphous Solids – They do not have a definite heat of fusion
Crystalline Solids – Anisotropic in nature. i.e., the magnitude of physical properties (such as refractive index, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity etc) is different along with different directions of the crystal.
Amorphous Solids – Isotropic in nature. i.e., the magnitude of the physical properties is the same along with all directions of the solid.
- Cleavage Property
Crystalline Solids – When cutting with a sharp edge, the two new halves will have smooth surfaces
Amorphous Solids – When cutting with a sharp edge, the two resulting halves will have irregular surfaces
Crystalline Solids – They are rigid solids and applying mild forces will not distort its shape.
Amorphous Solids – They are not rigid, so mild effects may change the shape.
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