Br2 - Diatomic Bromine

What is Diatomic Bromine?

Bromine compound is a molecule formed when two bromine atoms combine together. Bromine (Br2) is a red-brown liquid at ordinary temperature. It is very volatile. It gives very dense red-brown vapors that are highly toxic to mucous membranes. Bromine is purified from the salts taken from rocks and seawater. It is sold as salts or other compounds because pure bromine is expensive and difficult to produce. Bromine was discovered by French chemist Antoine J.Balard in 1826.

Other names – Dibromine, Bromine solution




3.1023 at 77 ° F

Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass

159.808 g/mol

Boiling Point

139.2 ° F at 760 mm Hg

Melting Point

19 ° F

Chemical Formula


Diatomic Bromine Structure – Br2

Diatomic Bromine Structure

Physical Properties of Diatomic Bromine – Br2


Pungent odour


Red to amber coloured gas

Covalently-Bonded Unit


Heavy Atom Count


Oxidation State


Solubility in water

0.33 mg/ mL.

Chemical Properties of Diatomic Bromine – Br2

  • Bromine reacts with sodium carbonate forms sodium bromide, sodium bromate and carbon dioxide.
  • 3Br2 + 3Na2CO3 → 5NaBr + NaBrO3 + 3CO2

  • Bromine dissolves in water forming hydrogen bromide and Hypobromous acid. The chemical equation is given below.
  • Br2 + H2O → HBr + HBrO

Uses of Diatomic Bromine – Br2

  • Used in gold mining extraction processes and in oil- and gas-well drilling.
  • Compounds with 32% bromine are used in textile coatings, spray-bonded nonwovens, adhesives, and fibers.
  • Used in the manufacture of flame-retardant materials used most commonly in markets.
  • Bromine is used mostly for the production of organic compounds and for analytical purposes.

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