Carbon and its Compounds

What are Carbon Compounds?

Carbon compounds are present everywhere i.e. in the food that we eat, the clothes that we wear and even in the lead of the pencil by which we write. The atomic number of carbon is 6 and the atomic mass is 12.01gmol-1. Carbon is a member of the 14th group. According to the data, it is the seventeenth most abundant element found on earth. It is found in both free as well as in the combined state. You can find it available as coal, graphite in

It is found in both free as well as in the combined state. You can find it available as coal, graphite in the elemental state. Whereas it is present as metal carbonates, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide gas in the combined state. When it combines with other elements such as dihydrogen, dioxygen, chlorine, and sulfur provides amazing arrays of materials that can vary from tissues to medicines.

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Understanding Carbon




Catenation Property

In Organic Chemistry, everything is surrounded by carbon compounds. It is one of the most essential components of living organisms. There are two stable isotopes of carbon 12C and 13C. After these two one more isotope of carbon is present 14C. Carbon is used for radiocarbon dating and it is also a radioisotope with a half-life of 5770 years.

  • One of the most amazing properties of carbon is its ability to make long carbon chains and rings. This property of carbon is known as catenation.
  • Carbon has many special abilities out of all one unique ability is that carbon forms pπ-pπ bonds which are nothing but double or triple bonds with itself and with other electronegative atoms like oxygen and nitrogen.
  • Just because of these two properties of carbon i.e catenation and multiple bond formation, it has the number of allotropic forms.

Do you know what does allotrope of carbon means?

Allotrope is nothing but the existence of an element in many forms which will have different physical property but will have similar chemical properties and its forms are called allotropes of allotropic forms. Allotropes are defined as the two or more physical forms of one element. These allotropes are all based on carbon atoms but exhibit different physical properties, especially with regard to hardness.

The two common, crystalline allotropes of carbon are diamond and graphite. Carbon shows allotropy because it exists in different forms of carbon. Diamond and Graphite of carbon but it is now known that all the amorphous carbons contain microcrystals of graphite. Though these allotropes of carbon have a different crystal structure and different physical properties, their chemical properties are the same and show similar chemical properties. Both diamond and graphite have symbol C. Both give off carbon dioxide when strongly heated in the presence of oxygen.


1. Why is carbon so important?
Ans: Carbon is a major component of living beings. Carbon is one of the basic building blocks for organic life together with nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon is about 18% of the human body. Due to its unique ability to form four separate bonds with other elements, Carbon is significant.

2. Is everything made out of carbon?
Ans: All on earth consists of combinations of various elements -all of which can be found in the periodic table. Existence without coal would be unlikely for life on earth. Coal is the main component of your body’s calories, carbohydrates, fats, Genes, muscle tissue.

3. What are the everyday uses of carbon?
Ans: In many consumer goods, carbon is used for inks, rubber, metal, pencils, and more! Of petroleum (gasoline) and plastics, tens of millions of synthetic carbon compounds are useful. Carbon is Earth’s essence of life. It’s an aspect of great importance.

4. What are the 4 types of carbon compounds?
Ans: Four major categories are present in all living things among the many forms of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

5. Which is the purest form of carbon?
Ans: The purest form of carbon is diamond. Different forms are considered allotropes of the same chemical element. Graphite and diamond are two of the greatest carbon allotropes. Diamond is a form of carbon that covalently bonds each carbon atom to four other carbon atoms.

The best way to get a better understanding of Carbon and its Compounds is to refer to NCERT solutions. Byju’s provides NCERT solutions for Carbon and its Compounds. To refer to these NCERT solutions click here – Carbon and its compounds

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