Predicting The Direction Of A Reaction

Predicting The Direction Of A Reaction

Introduction

When we deal with reactions that are reversible in nature, it is important to figure out the direction of the reaction at a given instance. For example, in the formation of ammonia at commercial scale in an industry from nitrogen and hydrogen, we need to optimize the process for efficient production. Thus, it is important to predict the state of the reaction at any given instant.

As we know, the direction in which a given chemical reaction will proceed can be calculated using the knowledge of the reaction constant. In this section, we will learn about the prediction of the direction of the reaction at any stage using the value of the reaction quotient and the equilibrium constant.

Calculating direction of a reaction quotient & equilibrium constant:

Let us consider a chemical reaction given as under,

a A + b B ↔ c C + d D

The reaction quotient of the reaction can be calculated in terms of the partial pressure (Qp) and the molar concentration (Qc) in the same way as we calculate the equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressure (Kp) and the molar concentration (Kc) as given below.

Calculating the equilibrium constant:

When the reaction is at equilibrium, the Kc for the reaction in terms of the molar concentration of the components can be given as,

direction of a reaction

And Kp of the reaction in terms of the partial pressure of the components can be given as,

direction of a reaction

Calculating reaction quotient:

When the reaction is not at equilibrium, we write the reaction quotient of the reaction in terms of their molar concentration as,

direction of a reaction

And the reaction quotient in terms of the partial pressure of the components as,

direction of a reaction

 

From the above four expressions, the following three cases arise, depending upon the direction in which the reaction is expected to proceed.

  • Q> Kc
    In this case, the reaction proceeds in the reverse or the backward direction or in the direction of the reactants.
  • Q< Kc
    In this case, the reaction proceeds in the forward direction or the direction of the products.
  • Q= Kc
    In this case, the reaction is said to be at equilibrium and no net reaction occurs in any direction.

Predicting the direction of a reaction

The above result has been clearly shown in the figure given here. For any chemical reaction,

  • If Qc>Kc,  the reaction goes from right to left.
  • If Qc<Kc,  the reaction goes from left to right.
  • If Qc=Kc,  the reaction is at equilibrium.

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Practise This Question

NX is produced by the following step of reactions M + X2MX2MX2+X2M3X8

M3X8+N2CO3NX +CO2+M3O4 How much M (metal) is consumed to produce 206 gm of NX. (Take at wt. of M = 56, N = 23, X = 80)