Applications of chemistry is exhibited in every part of a household like bathroom, kitchen etc. Sodium bicarbonate is one of the chemical which is used mainly because of its versatility, usefulness and its cheap price. Baking soda is the common name of sodium bicarbonate. Chemical formula of baking soda is \(NaHCO_3\)
History of sodium bicarbonate:
Medieval Egyptians first quarried Natron, natural deposit which mainly consists of \(Na_2CO_3\)
Preparation of Baking soda:
Solvay process is used for the production of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate industrially. In this process carbon dioxide, water, ammonia and brine solution in its concentrated form, are used as raw materials. This process is used mainly as it is inexpensive and less number of raw materials is used to produce necessary chemicals. The important chemical reaction that is used in the production of baking soda and sodium carbonate is:
\( CO_2 + H_2O + NH_3 + Na^+ \rightarrow NaHCO_3 + NH_4^+ \)
\( NaHCO_3 \rightarrow Na_2CO_3 + CO_2 + H_2O \)
Carbon dioxide produced is recycled to produce \(NaHCO_3\)
Properties of sodium bicarbonate:
- It is non-flammable.
- Powder dust is not as explosive.
- It has a melting point of 50o
- NaHCO3 is a white crystalline solid which is odourless.
- It is basic in nature.
Uses of baking soda:
- Reduces the acidity in the stomach.
- Acts as an antacid which is used to treat stomach upset and indigestion.
- Used in the process of washing as a water softener.
- Due to the formation of soapy foam, it is used in fire extinguishers.
- Removes the dirt off materials without damaging the properties of the material.
- Acts as a pesticide.
- Used in baking industries as carbon dioxide is generated (due to decomposition of \(NaHCO_3\)
)) which helps in the raising of the dough.
- It is used in ear drops, cosmetics and personal care products.
- It is used as a neutralizer to neutralize the effect of acid.
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