General Properties of Acids and Bases

What are Acids and Bases?

Acids are chemical substances which are characterized by a sour taste in an aqueous medium. They have the tendency to turn blue litmus red. On the other hand, bases are chemical substances which are characterized by a bitter taste and are slippery to the touch. Some of the bases are soluble in water while others are not.

Water soluble bases are known as alkalis. They have the tendency to turn red litmus blue. Acids and bases react with a wide range of chemical compounds to form salts. Some of the chemical reactions of acids and bases are:

Acids And Bases

Physical Properties of Acid

  • The word “acid” comes from the Latin word for sour. This distinguishable property helps identify acids from other compounds such as salt and bases. Many acids can be hazardous if ingested and shouldn’t be tasted.
  • Once the acid binds to the base, it becomes a neutral substance. Often this reaction can lead to water and salt. This is often seen when strong acids react with strong bases.
  • The acids are driving electricity. Outside of this, the batteries are used to produce electricity. The acid that conducts electricity strongly is a strong acid, and the acid that conducts electricity weakly is a weak acid.

Chemical Properties of Acid

1. Reactions of Acids and Bases with Metals

When a metal reacts with an acid, it generally displaces hydrogen from the acids. This leads to the evolution of hydrogen gas. The metals combine with remaining part of acids to form a salt. For example reaction of sulphuric acid with zinc.

\(H_2SO_4 ~+~ Zn ~\rightarrow ~ZnSO4 ~+ ~H_2\)

Alkalis (bases that are soluble in water) react with the metal to produce salt and hydrogen gas. For example reaction of zinc with sodium hydroxide.

\(2~ NaOH~ +~ Zn ~\rightarrow~ Na_2ZnO_2 ~+~ H_2\)

2. The Reaction of Metal Carbonates/Metal Bicarbonates with Acids

Metal carbonates/metal bicarbonates react with acids to produce salt, carbon dioxide and water. For example the reaction of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate with hydrochloric acid.

\(Na_2CO_3~ + ~HCl~ (aq)~\rightarrow ~2NaCl ~(aq)~ +~ H_2O (l)~ +~ CO_2\)

3. The Reaction of Metal Oxide with Acids

Metal oxides react with acids to produce salt and water. For example reaction of copper oxide and dilute hydrochloric acid.

\(CuO~ + ~2HCl ~\rightarrow~ CuCl_2 ~+~ H_2\)

4. The Reaction of Non-metal Oxide with Bases

Non-metal oxides react with bases to produce salt and water. For example the reaction of carbon dioxide and lime water (calcium hydroxide)

\(CO_2 ~+ ~Ca~ (OH)_2~ \rightarrow~ CaCO_3 ~+ ~H_2O\)

5. The Reaction between Acids and Bases

Acids react with bases to produce salt and water. The reaction between acids and bases to give salts is known as neutralization reactions. For example the reaction of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid.

\(NaOH ~+ ~HCl ~\rightarrow~ NaCl ~+ ~H_2O\)

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

What are the uses of acids?

It may also be used to store milk. Sulphuric acid is commonly found in batteries. Batteries used to power car engines usually produce this acid. The processing of explosives, dyes, paints and fertilizers requires the use of sulphuric acid and nitric acid.

What are two acid examples?

Acids are liquids that give up the concentration to hydrogen ions. There are many common acid substances: lemon juice (citric acid), vinegar (acetic acid), stomach acid, and soda pop (carbonic acid). Acids are typically ionic with a positive hydrogen ion attached to a negative anion.

What is acid base and salt with example?

The reaction of acid and base yields two products; water and an ionic compound known as salt. This type of reaction is called a neutralization reaction. For example , sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid and forms sodium chloride and water. They’ve both got an OH party.

What is base and salt?

A material is called base because the aqueous solution tastes acidic, makes red lime blue or neutralizes acids. Salt is a neutral material whose aqueous solution does not harm the lithium. According to Faraday: acids, bases and salts are considered electrolytes.

How are the basic salts are formed?

Basic salts are formed by neutralization of a strong base and weak acid; for example, the reaction of sodium hydroxide (a strong base) with acetic acid (a weak acid) produces water and sodium acetate. The conjugate acid of the low base makes the salt acidic.

For detailed discussions on physical and chemical properties of acids and bases, please visit BYJU’S.

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