Hydrogen Gas - H2

What is Hydrogen Gas?

Hydrogen is the non-metal with the chemical symbol H. The molecular formula of hydrogen is H2. Hydrogen has been recognized as a convenient, clean burning fuel. It can be stored as a compressed gas or as a liquid and is suitable for internal combustion engines in automobiles. Hydrogen itself is non-toxic and not carcinogenic.The hydrogen can be produced from coal and water. It is the critical element in the production of polyurethane plastics.

Other name – Molecular hydrogen

H2 Hydrogen Gas
Density 0.0893 g/L
Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 1.00794 u
Boiling Point -252.9 °C
Melting Point -259.2 °C
Chemical Formula H2

Hydrogen Gas Structure – H2

Hydrogen Gas

Physical Properties of Hydrogen Gas – H2

Odour Odourless
Appearance Colourless gas
Complexity less than 7
Vapour Pressure 20 ºK and 32 ºK
Covalently-Bonded Unit 1
Solubility in Water 1.62 mg/L at 21 deg C

Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Gas – H2

    • Hydrogen involves in the production of methanol. In the synthesis reaction hydrogen is not separated from the synthesis gas stream. The reaction is given below.

CO + 2H2 → CH3OH

    • Atmospheric nitrogen combines with hydrogen results in the production of ammonia.

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Uses of Hydrogen Gas – H2

  • Hydrogen gas is being explored for use in combustion engines and fuel cell electric vehicles.
  • The flame of oxygen and hydrogen can generate a temperature of 2800oC. This oxy-hydrogen flame is used for cutting and welding metals.
  • Used for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils that is converting edible vegetable oils into vanaspati ghee.
  • Equal volume of hydrogen and helium gas is used for filling weather observation balloons.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the uses of hydrogen gas?

Hydrogen gas is used to break down crude oil into fuel oil, gasoline and so forth in the production of petroleum products. Hydrogen is essential for the production of ammonia (a chemical compound with the formula NH3) for use in fertilizer making. Hydrogen gas, as used in margarine, is used as a hydrogenating agent for polyunsaturated fats.

How is hydrogen produced?

Hydrogen can be prepared through several methods. Two such methods are listed below.

  • Reacting natural gas with steam of very high temperature in order to obtain a mixture of hydrogen gas, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
  • Passing an electric current through water to split it into hydrogen and oxygen molecules (referred to as electrolysis of water)

Comment on the reactions between hydrogen and oxidizing agents

Hydrogen reacts with every oxidizing element. Hydrogen may combine with chlorine and fluorine spontaneously and violently at room temperature to form the corresponding hydrogen halides (hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride) which are also potentially harmful acids.

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