Hydrogen Gas - H<sub>2</sub>

What is Hydrogen Gas?

Hydrogen is the non-metal with the chemical symbol H. The molecular formula of hydrogen is H2. Hydrogen has been recognized as a convenient, clean burning fuel. It can be stored as a compressed gas or as a liquid and is suitable for internal combustion engines in automobiles. Hydrogen itself is non-toxic and not carcinogenic.The hydrogen can be produced from coal and water. It is the critical element in the production of polyurethane plastics.

Other name – Molecular hydrogen


Hydrogen Gas


0.0893 g/L

Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass

1.00794 u

Boiling Point

-252.9 °C

Melting Point

-259.2 °C

Chemical Formula


Hydrogen Gas Structure – H2

Hydrogen Gas

Physical Properties of Hydrogen Gas – H2




Colourless gas


less than 7

Vapour Pressure

20 ºK and 32 ºK

Covalently-Bonded Unit


Solubility in Water

1.62 mg/L at 21 deg C

Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Gas – H2

  • Hydrogen involves in the production of methanol. In the synthesis reaction hydrogen is not separated from the synthesis gas stream. The reaction is given below.
  • CO + 2H2 → CH3OH

  • Atmospheric nitrogen combines with hydrogen results in the production of ammonia.
  • N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Uses of Hydrogen Gas – H2

  • Hydrogen gas is being explored for use in combustion engines and fuel cell electric vehicles.
  • The flame of oxygen and hydrogen can generate a temperature of 2800oC. This oxy-hydrogen flame is used for cutting and welding metals.
  • Used for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils that is converting edible vegetable oils into vanaspati ghee.
  • Equal volume of hydrogen and helium gas is used for filling weather observation balloons.

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