What is Government Deficit?
Deficit is an amount by which the expends in a budget overreach the earnings. The Government Deficit is the amount of money in the budget set by which the government expend overreaches the government earning amount. This deficit furnishes a manifestation of the financial health of the economy. To minimize the deficit or the gap between the expends and income, the government may reduce a few expenditures and also rise revenue initiating pursuits.
In this concept, students can learn about Government deficit and the measures of the government deficit. There are several measures that apprehend government deficit and they have their own inferences for the economy, such as :
- Revenue Deficit
- Fiscal Deficit
- Primary Deficit
What is Revenue deficit?
The revenue deficit mentions to the surplus of government’s revenue expenditure over the revenue receipts.
Revenue deficit = Revenue expenditure – Revenue Receipts
This deficit only incorporates current income and current expenses. A high degree of deficit symbolizes that the government should reduce its expends. The government may raise its revenue receipts by rising income tax. Disinvestment is selling off assets is another corrective measure to minimize revenue deficit.
What is Fiscal Deficit?
Fiscal deficit is the distinction between the government’s total expend and its total receipts and this excludes borrowing.
Gross fiscal deficit = Total expenditure – (Revenue receipts + Non-debt creating capital receipts)
The fiscal deficit has to be financed by borrowing. Hence, it manifests the total borrowing necessities of the government from all the possible sources. From the financing part –
Gross fiscal deficit = Net borrowing at home + Borrowing from RBI + Borrowing from abroad
What is Primary Deficit?
A primary deficit is the amount of money that the government requires to borrow apart from the interest payments on the formerly borrowed loans. We must make a note that the borrowing necessity of the government comprises interest responsibilities on the collected amount of debt. The aim of quantifying primary deficit is to concentrate on current fiscal imbalances. To attain an approximate of borrowing on account of current expends overreaching revenues, we need to compute what has been known as the primary deficit. It is the fiscal deficit – the interest payments.
Gross primary deficit = Gross fiscal deficit – Net interest liabilities
Net interest liabilities comprises of interest payments – interest receipts by the government on net domestic lending.
The above mentioned is the concept that is explained in detail about Measures of Government Deficit for the class 12 students. To know more, stay tuned to BYJU’S.