Tabular Presentation of Data

What is Tabular Presentation of Data?

It is a table that helps to represent even a large amount of data in an engaging, easy to read, and coordinated manner. The data is arranged in rows and columns. This is one of the most popularly used forms of presentation of data as data tables are simple to prepare and read.

The most significant benefit of tabulation is that it coordinates data for additional statistical treatment and decision making. The analysis used in tabulation is of four types. They are:

  1. Qualitative
  2. Quantitative
  3. Temporal
  4. Spatial


1. Qualitative classification: When the classification is done according to traits such as physical status, nationality, social status, etc., it is known as qualitative classification.

2. Quantitative classification:  In this, the data is classified on the basis of features that are quantitative in nature. In other words, these features can be estimated quantitatively.

3. Temporal classification: In this classification, time becomes the categorising variable and data are classified according to time. Time, maybe in years, months, weeks, days, hours, etc.,

4. Spatial classification: When the categorisation is done on the basis of location, it is known as spatial classification. The place may be a country, state, district, block, village/town, etc.

Related read: T.R. Jain and V.K. Ohri Solutions for Presentation of Data

Basics of Tabular Presentation

Concept of Tabulation     Tabulation, i.e., tabular presentation of data is a method of presentation of data.

    It is a systematic and logical arrangement of data in the form of rows and columns with respect to the characteristics of data.

    It is an orderly arrangement which is compact and self-explanatory.

    Its objective is to: Present the data in a simple form, economies (save) space, facilitate comparison, facilitate statistical analysis, reduce the chances of errors.

An Illustration of a Blank Table to Present

Faculty/Stream wise Distribution of Students of Senior Secondary Classes in an Institution

Table no.(2017/1)


Faculty-wise distribution of students


(Head note)

Faculty XI XII Total





Table no.(2017/2)


Faculty-wise distribution of students


(Head note)

Faculty XI XII Total



Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total  


Objectives Of Tabulation

Following are the objectives of tabulation:

  • To simplify the complex data
  • To bring out essential features of the data
  • To facilitate comparison
  • To facilitate statistical analysis
  • Saving of space

What are the Three Limitations of a Table?

Following are the major limitations of a table:

(1) Lacks description

  • The table represents only figures and not attributes.
  • It ignores the qualitative aspects of the facts.

(2) Incapable of presenting individual items

  • It does not present individual items.
  • It presents aggregate data.

(3) Needs special knowledge

  • The understanding of the table requires special knowledge.
  • It cannot be easily used by a layman.

Explain the Main Parts of a Table:

Following are the main parts of a table:

(1) Table number     Table number is the very first item mentioned on the top of each table for easy identification and further reference.
(2) Title     Title of the table is the second item that is shown just above the table.

    It narrates the contents of the table, hence it has to be very clear, brief, and carefully worded.

(3) Head note     It is the third item just above the table and shown after the title.

    It gives information about units of data like, ‘amount in rupees or $’, “quantity in tonnes’, etc.

    It is generally given in brackets.

(4) Captions or Column headings     At the top of each column in a table, a column designation/head is given to explain the figures of the column.

    This column heading is known as ‘caption’.

(5) Stubs or Row headings     The title of the horizontal rows is known as ‘stubs’.
(6) Body of the table     It contains the numeric information and reveals the whole story of investigated facts. Columns are read vertically from top to bottom and rows are read horizontally from left to right.
(7) Source note     It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table.
(8) Footnote     It explains the specific feature of the table which is not self-explanatory and has not been explained earlier. For example, points of exception if any.


Short questions
Q.1. Whether tabulation makes the data simple or complex?
Answer: Simple
Q.2. Give two reasons to use footnotes in a table?

(i) To point out any exceptions to the data

(ii) To mention any special circumstances affecting the data

Q.3. Where is ‘head note’ placed in a table?
Answer: A headnote is given in small brackets in prominent words just below the main title.
Q.4. What is the importance of table number?
Answer: Table number makes it easier to find out the relevant table.
Q.5. What is the main part of the table known as?
Answer: Body

Multiple choice questions

Q.1. ___________ explains the specific feature of the table which is not self-explanatory.
a. Footnote

b. Source note

c. Body of the table

d. Caption

Q.2. At the top of each column in a table, a column designation is provided to explain the figures of the column which is known as ___________.
a. Stub

b. Caption

c. Head note

d. Title

Q.3. ___________ is a part of the table that gives information about the unit used in the table to represent data.
a. Stub

b. Caption

c. Head note

d. Title


Answer Key
1-a, 2-b, 3-c

The above-mentioned concept is for CBSE class 11 Statistics for Economics – Tabular Presentation of Data. For solutions and study materials for class 11 Statistics for Economics, visit BYJU’S or download the app for more information and the best learning experience.

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