Tabular Presentation of Data

What is Tabular Presentation of Data?

A table helps representation of even large amount of data in an engaging, easy to read and coordinated manner. The data is arranged in rows and columns. This is one of the most popularly used forms of presentation of data as data tables are simple to prepare and read.

The most significant benefit of tabulation is that it coordinates data for additional statistical treatment and decisionmaking. The analysis used in tabulation is of 4 types:

  1. Qualitative
  2. Quantitative
  3. Temporal
  4. Spatial
  1. Qualitative Classification

    When the classification is done according to traits, such as physical status, nationality, social status, etc., it is known as qualitative classification.

  2. Quantitative Classification

    In quantitative classification, the data is classified on the basis of features which are quantitative in nature. In other words, these features can be estimated quantitatively.

  3. Temporal Classification

    In this classification, time becomes the categorising variable and data are classified according to time. Time may be in years, months, weeks, days, hours, etc.,

  4. Spatial Classification

    When the categorisation is done on the basis of location, it is called spatial classification. The place may be a country, state, district, block, village/town, etc.,

BASICS OF TABULAR PRESENTATION

(A) CONCEPT OF TABULATION

  • Tabulation i.e. Tabular Presentation of data is a method of presentation of data.
  • It is a systematic and logical arrangement of data in the form of Rows and Columns with respect to the characteristics of data.
  • It is an orderly arrangement which is compact and self-explanatory.
  • Its objective is to:

    – Present data in simple form

    – Economies (save) space

    – Facilitate comparison

    – Facilitate statistical analysis

    – Reduce the chances of errors.

(B) AN ILLUSTRATION OF A BLANK TABLE TO PRESENT:

FACULTY/STREAM-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS OF SENIOR SECONDARY CLASSES IN AN INSTITUTION:

TABLE NO.(2017/1)

FACULTY-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS

(Head Note)

FACULTY

XI

XII

TOTAL

SCIENCE

COMMERCE

ARTS

TOTAL

  • SOURCE
  • FOOTNOTE
TABLE NO.(2017/2)

FACULTY-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS

(Head Note)

FACULTY

XI

XII

TOTAL

SCIENCE

COMMERCE

ARTS

BOYS

GIRLS

TOTAL

BOYS

GIRLS

TOTAL

TOTAL

  • SOURCE
  • FOOTNOTE

CONSTRUCTION OF TABLE (QUESTIONS)

Q.1- There are 3000 employees in XYZ Department, of whom 1/3rd are women and 300 are married. Half of the male employees are married. Show the classification of employees according to gender and marital status and prepare a table with complete figures.

Q.2- In a survey about food choice in two cities following data were obtained:

City A – 56% are male Out of the total population 50% prefer non-veg. food and Female vegetarian are 30% of the population.

City B – Females are 50%, total population of non-vegetarian is 75% of which 40% are Males.

Tabulate the observations.

Q.3- In the year 2005, out of the total 2800 workers, 1930 were members of trade union. The number of women employed was 300 of which 270 didn’t belong to any trade union. In the year 2010, the number of union workers increased to 2950 of which 2450 were men. The number of non-member decreased to 460 of which 400 were men. In the year 2015, total number of worker increased 250 and 3090 belong to a trade union. Of all the employees in 2015 600 were women of whom only 10 didn’t belong to a trade union.

Your are required to present this data in the form a table.

THEORY QUESTION-ANSWERS

Q.1-WHAT IS MEANT BY TABULATION? DISCUSS ITS OBJECTIVES IN BRIEF.

ANSWER:

(A) TABULATION

  • It is a systematic & logical presentation of numeric data in rows and columns.
  • To facilitate comparison and statistical analysis.
  • It facilitates comparison by bringing related information close to each other and helps in further statistical analysis and interpretation.

(B) FOLLOWING ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF TABULATION:

(1) TO SIMPLIFY THE COMPLEX DATA

  • It reduces the bulk of information i.e. raw data in a simplified and meaningful form so that it could be easily by a common man in less time.

(2) TO BRING OUT ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE DATA

  • It brings out the chief/main characteristics of data.
  • It presents facts clearly and precisely without textual explanation.

(3) TO FACILITATE COMPARISON

  • Presentation of data in row & column is helpful in simultaneous detailed comparison on the basis of several parameters.

(4) TO FACILITATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

  • Tables serve as the best source of organised data for further statistical analysis.
  • The task of computing average, dispersion, correlation etc. becomes much easier if data is presented in the form of a table.

(5)SAVING OF SPACE

  • A table presents facts in a better way than the textual form.
  • It saves space without sacrificing the quality and quantity of data.

Q.2-BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE MAIN PARTS OF A TABLE.

ANSWER:

FOLLOWING ARE THE MAIN PARTS OF A TABLE:

(1) TABLE NUMBER

  • Table No. is the very first item mentioned on the top of each table for easy identification and further reference.

(2) TITLE

  • Title of the table is the second item which shown just above the table.
  • It narrates about the contents of the table so, it has to be very clear, brief and carefully worded.

(3) HEAD NOTE

  • It is the third item just above the Table & shown after the title.
  • It gives information about unit of data like, “Amount in Rupees or $”, “Quantity in Tonnes” etc.
  • It is generally given in brackets.

(4) CAPTIONS OR COLUMN HEADINGS

  • At the top of each column in a table a column designation/head is given to explain figures of the column.
  • This is column heading is called “Caption”.

(5) STUBS OR ROW HEADINGS

  • The title of the horizontal rows is called “Stubs”.

(6) BODY OF THE TABLE

  • It contains the numeric information and reveals the whole story of investigated facts. Columns are read vertically from top to bottom and rows are read horizontally from left to right.

(7) SOURCE NOTE

  • It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table.

(8) FOOTNOTE

  • It explains the specific feature of the table which is not self-explanatory and has not been explained earlier. For example, Points of exception if any.

Q.3-WHAT ARE THE THREE LIMITATIONS OF A TABLE?

ANSWER:

FOLLOWING ARE THE MAJOR LIMITATIONS OF A TABLE:

(1) LACKS DESCRIPTION

  • Table represents only figures and not attributes.
  • It ignores the qualitative aspects of facts.

(2) INCAPABLE OF PRESENTING INDIVIDUAL ITEMS

  • It does not present individual items.
  • It presents aggregate data.

(3) NEEDS SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE

  • The understanding of table requires special knowledge.
  • It cannot be easily used by the layman.

SHORT QUESTIONS

Q.1-STATE ANY TWO OBJECTIVES OF TABULATION.

ANS:

– To simplify the complex data

– To economize space.

Q.2-WHETHER TABULATION MAKES THE DATA SIMPLE OR COMPLEX?

ANS: Simple

Q.3-GIVE TWO REASONS TO USE FOOTNOTES IN A TABLE?

ANS:

(i) To point out any exceptions to the data.

(ii) Mention any special circumstances affecting the data.

Q.4-WHERE IS ‘HEAD-NOTE’ PLACED IN A TABLE?

ANS: A headnote is given in small brackets in prominent words just below the main title.

Q.5-WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF TABLE NUMBER?

ANS: Table number makes it easier to find out the relevant table.

Q.6-WHAT IS THE MAIN PART OF THE TABLE CALLED?

ANS: Body

Multiple Choice Questions

Q.1 ___________ explains the specific feature of the table which is not self-explanatory
a. Footnote
b. Source note
c. Body of table
d. Caption
Q.2 At the top of each column in a table a column designation is provided to explain figures of the column which is known as ___________.
a. Stub
b. Caption
c. Head note
d. Title
Q.3 ___________ part of table gives information about unit used in table to represent data.
a. Stub
b. Caption
c. Head note
d. Title
ANSWER KEY
1-a, 2-b, 3-c

The above-mentioned concept is for CBSE class 11 Statistics for Economics – Tabular Presentation of Data. For solutions and study materials for class 11 Statistics for Economics, visit BYJU’S or download the app for more information and the best learning experience.

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