What is Goodwill?
Goodwill is an intangible asset associated with the purchase of one company by another. Specifically, goodwill is recorded in a situation in which the purchase price is higher than the sum of the fair value of all visible solid assets and intangible assets purchased in the acquisition and the liabilities assumed in the process. The value of a company’s brand name, solid customer base, good customer relations, good employee relations, and any patents or proprietary technology represent some examples of goodwill.
Goodwill Meaning in Accounting
Goodwill arises when a company acquires another entire business. The amount of goodwill is the cost to purchase the business minus the fair market value of the tangible assets, the intangible assets that can be identified, and the liabilities obtained in the purchase.
How to Calculate Goodwill
To calculate goodwill, we should take the purchase price of a company and subtract the fair market value of identifiable assets and liabilities.
Goodwill = P−(A+L)
P = Purchase price of the target company
A = Fair market value of assets
L = Fair market value of liabilities
Types of Goodwill
There are two distinct types:
- Purchased: Purchased goodwill is the difference between the value paid for an enterprise as a going concern and the sum of its assets less the sum of its liabilities, each item of which has been separately identified and valued.
- Inherent: It is the value of the business in excess of the fair value of its separable net assets. It is referred to as internally generated goodwill, and it arises over a period of time due to the good reputation of a business. It can also be called as self generated or non-purchased goodwill.
For example, suppose you are selling an outstanding product or providing excellent service consistently. In that case, there is a high chance of an increase in goodwill.
Read More: Important Questions for Goodwill
Goodwill Accounting Treatment
There are five types of accounting treatment of goodwill at the time of admission of a new partner:
- When the amount of goodwill is brought in cash and not recorded in books.
- When the new partner brings his share of goodwill in cash and is retained in business.
- When the new partner does not bring his share of goodwill in cash.
- When goodwill already exists in the books.
- When goodwill is raised at its full value.
To put it in a simple term, a Company named ABC’s assets minus liabilities is ₹10 crores, and another company purchases the company ABC for ₹15 crores, the premium value following the acquisition is ₹5 crores. This ₹5 crores will be included on the acquirer’s balance sheet as goodwill. It is also recorded when the purchase price of the target company is higher than the debt that is assumed.
Factors Affecting Goodwill
The following factors have an impact on the goodwill, which are:
- Location of the business : A business which is located in a suitable location will have a more favourable chance of higher goodwill than a business located in a remote location.
- Quality of goods and services: A business which is providing a higher quality of goods and services stands a great chance of earning more goodwill than competitors who provide inferior goods and services.
- Efficiency of management : An efficient management results in increase in profit of the business which enhances the goodwill of the business.
- Business Risk : A business having lesser risk has a better chance of creating goodwill than a high risk business.
- Nature of business: It means the type of products that business deals with, the level of competition in the market, demand for the products and the regulations impacting the business. A business having a favourable outcome in all these areas will have a greater goodwill.
- Favourable Contracts: A firm will enjoy a higher goodwill if it has access to favourable contracts for sale of products.
- Possession of trade mark and patents : Firms that have patents and trademarks will enjoy monopoly in the market, which will contribute to the increase in the goodwill of the firm.
- Capital : A firm with a higher return on investment along with lesser capital investment will be considered by buyers as more profitable and having more goodwill.
Also Read: What is the Accounting Treatment of Goodwill?
Need for Valuation of Goodwill
- The difference in the profit-sharing ratio (PSR) amongst the existing partners
- Admission of a new partner
- Retirement of a partner
- Death of a partner
- Dissolution of an enterprise involving the sale of the business as a trading concern
- Consolidation of partnership firms
Methods of Valuation of Goodwill
The significant methodologies of valuation are mentioned :
- Average Profits Method
- Super Profits Method
- Capitalisation Method
Additional Reading: TS Grewal Solutions for Goodwill- Nature and Valuation
This completes the topic of Goodwill for Class 12 Commerce students. It will help in forming a clear understanding of the concept of goodwill in accounting. To read more of such interesting concepts on Commerce, stay tuned to BYJU’S.
|Multiple Choice Questions
|Q.1-Goodwill is a ________asset which cannot be seen or touched.
|a. Liability. b. Current asset. c. Intangible. d. None of the above.
|Q.2- Goodwill is shown in:
|a. P & L Appropriation A/c b. Balance sheet. c. Profit and Loss A/c… d. None of the above.
|Q.3- In which side, the goodwill is shown in the balance sheet.
|a. Asset side under Fixed Assets b. Assets side under current assets. c. Intangible Fixed Assets d. Both (a)&(c)
|1-c, 2-b, 3-d.
Frequently Asked Questions on Goodwill
It is the reputation of a firm which enables it to earn higher profits in comparison to the normal profits earned by other firms in the same business.
What Is The Nature Of Goodwill?
It is the intangible asset which does not have a physical existence. It is not a fictitious asset. It can be sold with the sale of the business itself.
Why Is ‘goodwill’ Considered An ‘intangible Asset’ But Not A ‘fictitious Asset’?
It is considered an intangible asset as it cannot be seen or touched. However, it is not a fictitious asset as it can be sold for money or money’s worth.
Mention the Two Characteristics Of Goodwill?
(i) Goodwill is an intangible asset and not a fictitious asset.
(ii) Goodwill enables to earn a super profit.
Name Any Two Factors Affecting Goodwill Of A Partnership Firm?
(i) The favourable location of the Business
(ii) The efficiency of Management
Name Any Two Methods Of Valuation Of Goodwill?
(i) Average Profit Method
(ii) Super Profit Method