Advantages of migration:
- Remittances from international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
- Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development.
- Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girls’ education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
- Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as the evolution of composite culture
Disadvantages of migration:
- Unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding. The development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country.
- Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out-migration from the rural area have an adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. H
- High out-migration from Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.
- Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas.
- Due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.