Demographics of India: UPSC Exam Preparation

Demographics refer to statistical data relating to the population in a region. This covers various factors like population growth rate, the percentage of different age groups within the population, the literacy rates, the sex ratio, urban-rural population ratios, etc. A decent knowledge of this information will help in understanding the problems faced by the country. Social development and demographics are important topics in the UPSC civil services mains exam. It is also an important part of economic development. These are important topics in GS papers II and III. This article gives you a few statistical data that will aid you in your UPSC exam preparation.

Total population Around 1.38 billion

Around 1.22 billion (as per census 2011)

World rank in population 2
Percentage of the world population 17.71%
Population density 464 per sq. km
Growth rate 0.99%
Median age: Total Total: 28.1 years
Male: 27.5 years
Female: 28.9 years
Infant mortality rate 26.6 deaths per 1000 live births
Under – 5 mortality rate 32.9 deaths per 1000 live births
Life expectancy at birth Total: 70.42 years
Male: 69.2 years
Female: 71.8 years
Rural population Around 65%
Urban population Around 35%

The population of India by state (UTs not included)

Given below is the population of various Indian states as per the Census 2011:

  Most populated Population   Least populated Population
1 Uttar Pradesh 199,812,341 1 Sikkim 610,577
2 Maharashtra 112,374,333 2 Mizoram 1,097,206
3 Bihar 104,099,452 3 Arunachal Pradesh 1,383,727
4 West Bengal 91,276,115 4 Goa 1,458,545
5 Madhya Pradesh 72,626,809 5 Nagaland 1,980,602

 

Population density (persons per sq. km) by state (UTs not included)

Highest Density   Least Density
1 Bihar 1106 1 Arunachal Pradesh 17
2  West Bengal 1028 2 Mizoram 52
3 Kerala 859 3 Sikkim 86
4 Uttar Pradesh 828 4 Nagaland 119
5  Haryana 573 5 Manipur 122

Literacy Rates in India

The data and figures given below are based on Census 2011:

Total Literacy Rate: 74.04%
Male Literacy Rate: 82.14%
Female Literacy Rate: 65.46%

Highest Rate (%)   Least Rate (%)
1 Kerala 93.91 1 Bihar 63.82
2 Lakshadweep 92.28 2 Telangana 66.5
3 Mizoram 91.58 3 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95
4 Tripura 87.75 4 Rajasthan 67.06
5 Goa 87.4 5 Andhra Pradesh 67.4

Fertility Rate in India (Number of children born per woman)

Total fertility rate: 2.2

The table given below depicts the figures announced by NITI Aayog for the fertility rate in India (as of 2013):

  Top Three Rate   Bottom Three Rate
1 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 0.7 1 Bihar 3.4
2 Tripura 1.3 2 Uttar Pradesh 3.1
3 Goa 1.4 3 Madhya Pradesh 2.9

Sex Ratio in India (not including UT’s)

The figures given below are based on NITI Aayog’s data for 2013-2015:

Total sex ration in India: 900
(900 females per 1000 males)

Top Three Sex Ratio   Bottom Three Sex Ratio
1 Kerala 967 1 Haryana 831
2 Chhatisgarh 961 2 Uttrakhand 844
3 West Bengal 951 3 Gujarat 854
4 Odisha 950 4 Rajasthan 861
5 Karnataka 939 5 Delhi 869

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