Demographics of India: UPSC Exam Preparation

Demographics refer to statistical data relating to the population in a region. This covers various factors like population growth rate, the percentage of different age groups within the population, the literacy rates, the sex ratio, urban-rural population ratios, etc. A decent knowledge of this information will help in understanding the problems faced by the country. Social development and demographics are important topics in the UPSC civil services mains exam. It is also an important part of economic development. These are important topics in GS papers II and III. This article gives you a few statistical data that will aid you in your UPSC exam preparation.

Total population Around 1.38 billion
World rank in population 2
Percentage of the world population 17.71%
Population density 464 per sq. km
Growth rate 0.99%
Median age: Total Total: 28.1 years
Male: 27.5 years
Female: 28.9 years
Infant mortality rate 26.6 deaths per 1000 live births
Under – 5 mortality rate 32.9 deaths per 1000 live births
Life expectancy at birth Total: 70.42 years
Male: 69.2 years
Female: 71.8 years
Rural population Around 65%
Urban population Around 35%

The population of India by state (UTs not included)

  Most populated Population   Least populated Population
1 Uttar Pradesh 199,812,341 1 Sikkim 610,577
2 Maharashtra 112,374,333 2 Mizoram 1,097,206
3 Bihar 104,099,452 3 Arunachal Pradesh 1,383,727
4 West Bengal 91,276,115 4 Goa 1,458,545
5 Madhya Pradesh 72,626,809 5 Nagaland 1,980,602

 

Population density (persons per sq. km) by state (UTs not included)

Highest Density   Least Density
1 Bihar 1102 1 Arunachal Pradesh 17
2  West Bengal 1029 2 Mizoram 52
3 Kerala 859 3 Sikkim 86
4 Uttar Pradesh 828 4 Nagaland 119
5  Haryana 573 5 Manipur 122

Literacy Rates in India

Total Literacy Rate: 74.04%
Male Literacy Rate: 82.14%
Female Literacy Rate: 65.46%

Highest Rate (%)   Least Rate (%)
1 Kerala 93.91 1 Bihar 63.82
2 Lakshadweep 92.28 2 Telangana 66.5
3 Mizoram 91.58 3 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95
4 Tripura 87.75 4 Rajasthan 67.06
5 Goa 87.4 5 Andhra Pradesh 67.4

Fertility Rate in India (Number of children born per woman)

Total fertility rate: 2.2

  Top Three Rate   Bottom Three Rate
1 Sikkim 1.2 1 Bihar 3.4
2 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 1.5 2 Meghalaya 3
3 Punjab, Kerala, Chandigarh 1.6 3 Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland 2.7

Sex Ratio in India (not including UT’s)

Total sex ration in India: 940
(940 females per 1000 males)

Top Three Sex Ratio   Bottom Three Sex Ratio
1 Kerala 1084 1 Delhi 868
2 Tamil Nadu 996 2 Haryana 879
3 Andhra Pradesh 993 3 Jammu & Kashmir 889
4 Chhattisgarh 991 4 Sikkim 890
5 Meghalaya 989 5 Punjab 895

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