In Mathematics, algebraic operations on complex numbers are given by four basic arithmetic operations which include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. A complex number is the combination of a real number and an imaginary number.
The algebraic operations on complex numbers are defined purely by the algebraic methods. Some basic algebraic laws like associative, commutative, and distributive law are used to explain the relationship between the number of operations. By the use of these laws, the algebraic expressions are solved in a simple way. Since algebra is a concept based on known and unknown values (variables), its own rules are created to solve the problems. In this article, let us discuss the basic algebraic operations on complex numbers with examples.
What are Complex Numbers?
In Maths, basically, a complex number is defined as the combination of a real number and an imaginary number. Real numbers are the numbers that we usually work on to do mathematical calculations. But the imaginary numbers are not generally used for calculations but only in the case of complex numbers.
Equality of Complex Numbers
Assume that z1 and z2 are the two complex numbers.
Here z1 = a1+i b1 and z2 = a2+ib2
If both the complex numbers z1 and z2 are equal (i.e) z1 = z2, then we can say that the real part of the first complex number is equal to the real part of the second complex number, whereas the imaginary part of the first complex number is equal to the imaginary part of the second complex number.
(i.e) Re(z1) = Re(z2) and Im(z1) = Im(Z2)
Thus, the equality of complex number states that,
Operations on Complex Numbers
The basic algebraic operations on complex numbers discussed here are:
- Addition of Two Complex Numbers
- Subtraction(Difference) of Two Complex Numbers
- Multiplication of Two Complex Numbers
- Division of Two Complex Numbers.
Addition of Two Complex Numbers
We know that a complex number is of the form z=a+ib where a and b are real numbers.
Consider two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2
Then the addition of the complex numbers z1 and z2 is defined as,
|z1+z2 =( a1+a2 )+i( b1+b2 )|
We can see that the real part of the resulting complex number is the sum of the real part of each complex number and the imaginary part of the resulting complex number is equal to the sum of the imaginary part of each complex number.
That is, Re(z1+z2 )= Re( z1 )+Re( z1 )
Im( z1+z2 )=Im( z1)+Im(z2)
For the complex numbers,
z1 = a1+ib1
z2 = a1+ib2
z3 = a3+ib3
zn = an+ibn
a1+a2+a3+….+an = (a1+a2+a3+….+an )+i(b1+b2+b3+….+bn)
|Let’s Work Out:
z1 = a+3i, z2 = 4+bi, z3 = 6+10i
Find the value of a and b if z3 = z1+z2
By the definition of addition of two complex numbers,
Re(z3 ) = Re(z1 )+Re(z2 )
6 = a + 4
a = 6 – 4 = 2
Im(z3 ) = Im(z1 ) + Im(z2 )
10 = 3+b
b = 10-3 =7
Conjugate of Complex number
Conjugate of a complex number z=a+ib is given by changing the sign of the imaginary part of z which is denoted as
Properties of Addition of Complex Numbers
|Name of the Property||Description||Expression|
|Closure property||Addition of two complex numbers is a complex number||z1 + z2 = z|
|Commutative property||Order of addition of two complex numbers, does not change the result||z1 + z2 = z2 + z1|
|Associative property||Regrouping three complex numbers, while adding them, does not change the result||(z1+z2)+z3 = z1+(z2+z3)|
|Additive inverse property||If z = a+ib is a complex number, then its additive inverse will be -z = -a – ib||z+(-z) = 0|
|Additive identity||If a value added to complex number results in the same complex number, then it becomes the additive identity||(a+ib) + (0 + i0) = a + ib|
Difference of Two Complex Numbers
Consider the complex numbers z1 = a1+ib1 and z2 = a2+ib2, then the difference of z1 and z2, z1-z2 is defined as,
|z1-z2 = (a1-a2)+i(b1-b2)|
From the definition, it is understood that,
z1 =4+ai,z2=2+4i,z3 =2. Find the value of a if z3=z1-z2
By the definition of difference of two complex numbers,
0 = a – 4
a = 4
Multiplication of Two Complex Numbers
We know the expansion of (a+b)(c+d)=ac+ad+bc+bd
Similarly, consider the complex numbers z1 = a1+ib1 and z2 = a2+ib2
Then, the product of z1 and z2 is defined as:
z1 z2 = a1 a2+a1 b2 i+b1 a2 i+b1 b2 i2
Since, i2 = -1, therefore,
|z1 z2 = (a1 a2 – b1 b2 ) + i(a1 b2 + a2 b1 )|
Let us see here a solved example based on the multiplication of complex numbers.
z1=6-2i, z2=4+3i. Find z1 z2
z1 z2 = (6-2i) (4+3i)
= 6 × 4 + 6 × 3i + (-2i) × 4 + (-2i)(3i)
= 24 + 18i – 8i – 6i2
= 24 + 10i + 6
= 30 + 10i
Multiplicative inverse of a complex number
Definition: For any non-zero complex number z=a+ib(a≠0 and b≠0) there exists another complex number z-1 or 1/z, which is known as the multiplicative inverse of z such that zz-1 = 1.
z = a+ib, then,
z = 3 + 4i
The numerator of z-1 is conjugate of z, that is a – ib
Denominator of z-1 is sum of squares of the Real part and imaginary part of z
Here, z = 3 + 4i
Properties of Multiplication of Complex Numbers
|Name of the Property||Description||Expression|
|Closure property||Product of two complex number is a complex number only||z1 x z2 = z|
|Commutative property||Change of order of complex numbers, does not change the result of their product||z1.z2 = z2.z1|
|Associative property||Regrouping of complex numbers, does not change the result of their product||z1(z2.z3) = (z1.z2)z3|
|Distributive property||Multiplication of a complex number with the sum of two complex numbers is given by:||z1(z2+z3) = z1.z2 + z1.z3|
Division of Complex Numbers
Consider the complex number z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2, then the quotient of z1/z2 is defined as,
Therefore, to find z1/z2, we have to multiply z1 with the multiplicative inverse of z2.
Now, let us discuss in detail about the division of complex numbers:
Let z1 = a1+ib1 and z2 = a2+ib2, then z1/z2 is given as:
z1/z2 = (a1+ib1)/(a2+ib2)
Hence, (a1+ib1)/(a2+ib2) = [(a1+ib1)(a2-ib2)]/[(a2+ib2)(a2-ib2)]
(a1+ib1)/(a2+ib2) = [(a1a2)-(a1b2i)+(a2b1i)+b1b2)]/[(a22+b22)]
(a1+ib1)/(a2+ib2) = [(a1a2)+(b1b2) +i(a2b1-a1b2)]/(a22+b22)
If z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 1 + i, find z1/z2.
Algebraic Operations on Complex Numbers Summary
Assume that z1 = a1+ib1 and z2 = a2+ib2 are the two complex numbers
Addition: z1+z2 =( a1+a2 )+i( b1+b2 )
Subtraction: z1-z2 = (a1-a2)+i(b1-b2)
Multiplication: z1 z2 = (a1 a2 – b1 b2 ) + i(a1 b2 + a2 b1 )
Add 2+4i and -1+3i.
Given the two complex numbers are:
2+4i and -1+3i
⇒ 1 + 7i
Simplify: 7 + i + 4 + 4.
7 + i + 4 + 4
⇒ (7+4+4) + i
⇒ 15 + i
Multiply the complex numbers: (5+3i). (3+4i)
(5+3i). (3+4i) = 15+20i+9i-12
(5+3i). (3+4i) = (15-12) + i(20+9)
(5+3i). (3+4i) = 3+29i
Hence, the product of (5+3i) and (3+4i) is 3+29i.
Subtract (2+5i) from (7+15i).
We know that (a+bi) – (c+di) = (a-c) + i(b-d).
(7+15i) – (2+5i) = (7-2)+i(15-5)
(7+15i) – (2+5i) =5+10i
Hence, (7+15i) – (2+5i) is 5+10i
Simplify the following:
- −3 + 6i − (−5 − 3i) − 8i
- 4i(−2 − 8i)
- (−2 − i)(4 + i)
- (−2 − 2i)(−4 − 3i)(7 + 8i)
- −3i ⋅ 6i − 3(−7 + 6i)
Frequently Asked Questions on Algebraic operations on complex numbers
What are complex numbers?
How do we add two complex numbers?
How do we subtract two complex numbers?
What are the four algebraic operations?
How do we multiply two complex numbers?
(a+bi).(c+di) = (ac-bd) + i(bc+ad).