Reduction Formula for NEET

Oxidation-reduction reactions involve changes in the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. Oxidation represents a loss of electrons and reduction of a gain of electrons. Electron losses and gains result from the direct transfer of electrons from one substance to another or from the transfer of electrons in association with hydrogen and oxygen or some other atom.

Reduction involves any one of the following:

Removal of Oxygen

PbO + C → Pb + CO

Addition of Hydrogen

H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl

Lithium Aluminium Hydride – LiAlH4

Lithium aluminium hydride is a powerful hydride donor reagent. It reduces esters, acids, nitriles and amides as well as aldehydes and ketones.

Lithium Aluminium Hydride

Lithium Aluminium Hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride reacts violently with water.

Lithium Aluminium Hydride + Water

Reaction with Alcohols

Lithium Aluminium Hydride + Alcohols

Reduction of Ketones

Reduction of Ketones

Reduction of Camphor

Reduction of Camphor

Sodium Borohydride – NaBH4

Carbonyl compounds are reduced which reagents which transfer a hydride from boron or aluminium. Sodium borohydride is a mild reducing agent which reacts rapidly with aldehydes and ketones but only slowly with esters.

Sodium Borohydride

Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones

The most commonly used reagent for the reduction of aldehydes and ketones is sodium borohydride. Since a BH4 ion contains four hydrides, it is capable of reducing four molecules of aldehyde or ketone.

The reaction takes place through the successive transfer of hydride ions from the boron to four different carbonyl carbonates. When all four of the hydrides are being moved, four aldehyde or ketone molecules can be reduced.

Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones

Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones

Rosenmund Reduction

The Rosenmund reaction is a process of hydrogenation in which molecular hydrogen reacts in the presence of a catalyst with the acyl chloride-palladium on barium sulfate.

Rosenmund Reduction

Rosenmund Reduction

Birch Reduction

Birch reduction is an organic chemical reaction in which aromatic compounds with a benzenoid ring are converted into 1,4-cyclohexadiene.

Birch Reduction

Stephen’s Reduction

Stephen Reaction Process starts with Gaseous Hydrogen Chloride being added to Given Nitrile.

Stephen’s Reduction

Examples of Stephen’s Reduction

Examples of Stephen’s Reduction

Clemmensen Reduction

The Clemmensen reduction is a reaction that uses hydrochloric acid and zinc amalgam to convert aldehydes or ketones to alkanes.

Clemmensen Reduction

Wolff Kishner Reduction

The process of Wolff Kishner reduction starts with the formation of a hydrazone anion and then releases the nitrogen atom into a carbanion. The carbanion then reacts to give a hydrocarbon with the water in the system. This reduction is an organic reaction in which aldehydes and ketones become alkanes.

Wolff Kishner Reduction

Reduction reactions in which electrons are transferred from one chemical species to another at the same time are actually composed of two different reactions.

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