RBSE Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 2: Human System | Textbook Important Questions & Answers

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Human System Solutions is used by students to get an idea about the concepts and topics taught in class from Chapter 2 of Class 10 Science textbook. Human body is a complex and wonderful structure that functions with mutual coordination of its constituents. In Chapter 2 of RBSE Class 10 Science, concepts like digestive system, respiration, blood and circulatory system and so on are discussed in-depth. Learning these concepts and topics can be challenging. Hence, we have compiled here the best resource that can help the students to prepare most competently for the board exams. RBSE Class 10 Solutions of Chapter 2 Science, Human System help the students to understand the concepts and master the subject thoroughly.

We have provided here the list of chapterwise solutions from the Class 10 Chapter 2 Science Solutions of RBSE. These questions, covering all the main topics from the chapter, also consist of solutions to the questions asked at the end of the chapter in the textbook.

Rajasthan Board Class 10 Science Chapter 2- BYJU’S Important Questions & Answers

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Objective Questions-Important Questions and Solutions

1. What controls the movement of food, digested food, and waste materials?

(a) Sphincters

(b) Mucosa

(c) Mucus Epithelium

(d) Both ‘b’ and ‘c’

Answer: (a) Sphincters

2. Which of the teeth is most developed in carnivorous animals?

(a) Incisors

(b) Canines

(c) Premolars

(d) Molars

Answer: (b) Canines

3. Which of the following enzymes is not secreted by pancreas?

(a) Amylase

(b) Trypsin

(c) Rennin

(d) Lipase

Answer: (c) Rennin

4. Number of lobes found in the left lung?

(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d) 1

Answer: (c) 2

5. Red Blood Cells of which of the following blood groups has both A and B antigens?

(a) O

(b) A

(c) B

(d) AB

Answer: (d) AB

6. The main excretory product of the human body?

(a) Ammonia

(b) Uric acid

(c) Urea

(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘c’

Answer: (c) Urea

7. The main human male hormone is

(a) Estrogen

(b) Progesterone

(c) Testosterone

(d) Both ‘b’ and ‘c’

Answer: (c) Testosterone

 

8. The motor nerves deliver the stimuli

(a) From central nervous system to organs

(b) From organs to central nervous system

(c) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’ are correct

(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’ are incorrect

Answer: (a) From central nervous system to organs

9. The Corpora quadrigemina is found

(a) Forebrain

(b) Hindbrain

(c) Midbrain

(d) both (a) and (b)

Answer: (c) Midbrain

10. Which is responsible for the internal clock of the body?

(a) Thyroid gland

(b) Pancreas

(c) Adrenal gland

(d) Pineal gland

Answer: (d) Pineal gland

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions

1. Write the name of the basic structural and functional unit of body

Answer: Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of body

2. Define the digestive system.

Answer: Humans derive the energy and raw organic substances required for the body from food that contains complex components such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, vitamins, salt and so on. These complex components have to be simplified if they have to be absorbed in the body. In order to accomplish the process, from food intake to defecation, a system consisting of various organs and glands work in close coordination. This system that converts complex nutrients and large food components into simple and soluble substances with the help of chemical processes and enzymes is called the digestive system.

3. What is the work of sphincter muscles?

Answer: Muscular sphincters in the stomach control the passage of the content. The cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter divides the pharynx and stomach blocking the movement of acidic food back to the esophagus and the pharynx from the stomach. Alternatively, Pyloric sphincter divides the stomach and small intestine controlling the movement of food from stomach to small intestine.

4. Write the name of the glands involved in the digestive system.

Answer: The glands involved in the digestive system includes the salivary gland, pancreas and liver.

5. What is the function of the incisor teeth?

Answer: The nibbling and cutting of the food for the infants is carried out with these front teeth, known as incisor teeth. It comes out at 6 months of age of a child.

6. How many parts of the stomach are there?

Answer: Stomach is divided into three parts. They are the (1) cardiac portion, which is the larger left portion where the esophagus enters in the stomach (2) Pylorus- the smaller right portion through which the stomach connects to the small intestine and its contents flow out of the stomach and reaches the duodenum and (3) fundus portion that lies between the cardiac portion and pylorus present just under the diaphragm. Stomach also has two muscular sphincters.

7. Where does the maximum absorption of digested food take place?

Answer: Jejunum is the central portion of the small intestine, where the dietary juices digested in the duodenum are absorbed. The absorption function is carried out with the help of a special type of cells known as enterocytes.

8. Write the name of the largest gland found in the body.

Answer: One of the most vital digestive glands of the human body, the liver is also the largest gland found in the body.

9. Which gland secretes ptyalin enzyme?

Answer: Salivary gland secretes the enzyme ptyalin.

10. How many cartilages are found in the larynx?

Answer: Larynx is made up of nine types of cartilages.

11. The mucus in trachea is produced by________

Answer: Mucus in the trachea is produced by the epithelium.

12. How much blood is found in a normal person?

Answer: Amount of blood is actually equivalent to about 70% of the body weight. Hence, a person of average weight 150 to 180 pounds, should have about 5 litres of blood.

13. What is the lifespan of the platelets?

Answer: The average lifespan of a platelet is only 10 days.

14. Name of the vessel in which impure blood flows.

Answer: The vessel that carries impure blood is the vein.

15. What is pericardium?

Answer: The red fist shaped hollow organ, human heart is made up of muscular tissues and is surrounded by a double walled membrane cover known as the pericardium.

17. What is the work of the Aorta?

Answers: The main artery that carries the blood away from the heart to other parts of the body is known as aorta. Thus, Aorta gives the body access to oxygen rich blood that it needs to survive.

18. What is the process of excretion of ammonia called?

Answer: The animals that excrete ammonia are known as ammonotelic.

19. What is the main excretory organ in human beings?

Answer: Kidney is the main excretory organ found in the human body.

20. Write the name of the organ that produces ovum.

Answer: Ovary is the female sex organ that produce eggs, known as the ovum or even ova in plural. The process of the gamete formation in the female ovaries leads to production of eggs or Ovum. This process is known as Oogenesis.

21. Write the name of the major female sex hormone

Answer: The major sex hormone for a female is the estrogen and progestrone.

22. Where does the placenta implant in the mother?

Answer: Placenta is the new large organ that develops during pregnancy. Soon after pregnancy, the placenta attaches itself to the walls of the uterus.

23. Write the name of the systems responsible for establishing the coordination among various organs?

Answer: The endocrinal system, along with the nervous system establishes coordination between various cellular activities of the body.

24. Where is grey matter found?

Answer: Grey matter in the form of a long column is located from the start to the terminal region of the spinal cord. Each hemisphere in the outer area of the forebrain also contains a grey matter, known as cortex.

25. Write name of a neurotransmitter.

Answer: Acetylcholine is the name of a neurotransmitter.

26. Name the hormone released by the Thyroid gland.

Answer: Thyroid gland secretes Thyroxine hormone.

27. Which gland is responsible for the secretion of the adrenaline hormone?

Answer: Adrenal glands release the adrenaline or the epinephrine hormone.

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Short Answer Questions-Important Questions and Solutions

28. Write the name of the organs involved in the digestive system.

Answer: Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine and Rectum are the major organs of the human body involved in the digestive system. These organs along with the digestive glands make up the Alimentary canal that goes down to the anus about 8 to 10 meters long, also called the digestive canal. Meanwhile, the glands involved in digestion are the salivary glands, pancreas and liver.

29. Explain the structure and function of the stomach.

Answer: Stomach is the J-shaped structure, the part of the alimentary canal past the esophagus. Positioned between the esophagus and the duodenum, to the left of the abdominal cavity and posterior of the diaphragm, it is a flexible organ that can hold about 1 to 3 litres of food. Stomach is also divided into three parts, the cardiac part, fundus and the pylorus.

  • Cardiac part is so called as it is present close to the heart. The opening of the oesophagus to the stomach is regulated by the cardiac sphincter.
  • Fundus is dome-shaped and is usually filled with air.
  • Body is the main part of the stomach. The opening of the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the pyloric sphincter.

30. Where is the salivary gland found? Explain its structure.

Answers: Salivary gland is found in the ailment canal and produces saliva in the mouth. The gland is of three types. They are the parotid gland located near the cheeks and secretes a fluid that is like serum, Submandibular salivary gland-a mixed gland, which secretes fluid and mucus and there is also sublingual gland found beneath the tongue, from which mucus like liquid is secreted.

31. Discuss the main functions of the nostrils.

Answer: Human respiratory system is classified into three main parts, the upper respiratory system, the lower respiratory system and the respiratory muscles. The upper respiratory system includes the nose, mouth, pharynx and the larynx. Nose is the first respiratory organ that begins with a pair of externally visible nostrils. Oxygen enters the nose while inhaling and exits while exhaling with the help of nostrils. The walls of the nasal cavity covered with hair or cilia help trap the dust and harmful particles and purify the inhaled air. The nose hair also moisturizes and warms the air. Human beings get a sense of smell with the help of the nose.

32. How is pharynx helpful in respiration?

Answer: A muscular funnel like structure that extends from the posterior part of the nasal cavity to the upper part of the esophagus , the pharynx is categorized into the Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and the Laryngopharynx. First part of the pharynx located in the posterior part of the nasal cavity is the nasopharynx. Air that passes through the nasal cavity flows to the nasopharynx and reaches the Oropharynx. The air from Oropharynx flows through the laryngopharynx and enters the larynx via epiglottis, a flap like cartilage structure. Epiglottis functions as a switch between the esophagus and the windpipe/ trachea. Pharynx also helps in food intake with the epiglottis working as a lid to ensure that air enters only in the trachea, while the food goes to the food pipe.

33. Write the importance of respiratory muscles.

Answer: Respiratory muscles help in the gaseous exchange using the lungs. It helps in the inhalation and exhalation of the gases. Diaphragm, a thin sheet like structure made of skeletal muscles located on the surface of the thoraces is primarily responsible for respiration. When the diaphragm contracts, air flows through the nostrils and enters the lungs, while the air is exhaled from the lungs with the relaxation of the diaphragm. There are also the intercostal muscles at the ribs that help the diaphragm to relax and contract.

34. Define blood and write its functions?

Answer: Blood is a type of liquid connective tissue. It is found in humans and other animals and helps in transporting essential nutrients and oxygen to cells along with metabolic waste products and carbon dioxide from the cells. Blood is vital tissue of the body of organisms. Main functions of the blood are listed here:

  • Exchange of 02 and CO2
  • Transport of nutrients to various parts of the body
  • Controlling the pH of the body
  • Controlling body temperature
  • Aid in Immunity related functions
  • Transportation of hormones and other required molecules
  • Excretion of waste products

35. Explain the structure of Kidney.

Answer: Two bean-shaped structures located on either side of the backbone protected by the ribs and muscles of the back are the Kidney. One human kidney is of length 10-12 cm, width of 5-7 cm and weighs around 120-170g. Details about the structure of the kidney can be found in the human excretory system.

36. Mention the organs besides the kidney, which are involved in the process of excretion.

Answer: Apart from Kidneys, organs such as lungs, liver, skin and sebaceous glands are all involved in the process of excretion. Learn more about the role of other organs in excretion.

37. Explain the role of the female primary sex organs.

Answer: Ovaries are the primary sex organs in a female. Its two main functions include production of female germ cells (ovum) and acting as endocrine glands, secreting the estrogen and progesterone hormones. The ovaries are located in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity under the kidneys on both sides of the uterus. Each ovary contains several distinct structures known as ovarian follicles, which produce the ovum or egg. Post maturing, these eggs are released from the ovary and it flows to the uterus via the fallopian tubes. Meanwhile, the hormones that were released from the ovaries help in female sexual transformation, egg formation and so on.

38. What is the role of VasDeferens in the human reproductive system?

Answer: The sperms produced in testes are stored in a tube called epididymis. Once the sperm has matured, it passes to urethra via the muscular tube known as vas deferens. It is a duct like structure, which along with ureter forms a common vessel, thus enabling the sperm and the urine to both have a common route. A pair of the duct is found, one of which carries the sperm from the testis and along with the seminal vesicle connects with the left and right trajectory.

39. What is the significance of the spinal cord?

Answer: Spinal cord, housed between the vertebral column is a neural canal of 45 and a vital organ of the central nervous system. Through the medulla oblongata, the hind brain remains connected to the spinal cord. Learn in detail about the spinal cord.

40. What is the work of the fore-brain? Explain its structure.

Answer: The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and the hypothalamus. About 80% to 85% of the human brain is the cerebrum, which is a part of the brain where the knowledge, consciousness and thinking related functions are executed. Cerebrum into the right and left cerebral hemispheres with the help of A elongated deep fissure. Each of these hemispheres found in the exterior consists of a cortex, also known as grey matter. On the inner side is the white matter or the medulla. There are many nerves in the grey matter, thus making the matter look grey. Meanwhile, both the hemispheres are connected together through a strip of Corpus Callosum. The cerebrum is surrounded on every side by the thalamus, the centre of sensory and motor signals. Finally, the hypothalamus is found on the Diencephalon part of the forebrain, located on the basal part of the thalamus. This section is responsible for functions such as hunger, sleep, thirst, temperature,fatigue, expression of feelings and so on.

41. What is the role of Hypothalamus in the endocrine system?

Answer: Hypothalamus has an important role to play, establishing the control of the endocrine system. It collects various information from various parts of the brain. The information is sent to the pituitary gland via various secretions and nerves. On the basis of this information, the pituitary gland through its secretions either directly or indirectly controls the activities of the other endocrine glands.

42. Explain the exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas.

Answer: Endocrine system functions via the endocrine glands that are ductless and directly secretes the hormones into the bloodstream. Some of the glands function as both endocrine and exocrine. Example is of Pancreas that secretes insulin and glucagon hormone as the endocrine gland. It also acts as an exocrine gland, secreting digestive enzymes. Endocrine glands in addition to secretion of hormones also operate to store and release the hormones.

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Essay Questions-Important Questions and Solutions

43. Write a detailed note on the human digestive system. Explain the importance of enzymes in the digestive system.

Answer: Find the explanation in detail for the human digestive system and the importance of enzymes in the digestive system.

44. Explain the significance of bronchioles, lungs and respiratory muscles in the human respiratory system.

Answer: Bronchi and lungs are parts of the lower respiratory system. The trachea divides into two tubes known as bronchi. Bronchi enter each lung individually. The bronchi are divided into secondary, tertiary, and bronchioles which are further split into small air-sacs called the alveoli. The alveoli are minute sacs of air with thin walls, and single-celled manner. It enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules into or away from the bloodstream. Lungs, in the meantime, are the chief centres of respiration in humans and other vertebrates. They are found in the thoracic cavity of the chest close to the backbone and on either side of the heart. They are the pair of large, spongy organs mainly involved in the exchange of gases between the blood and the air.The right lung is quite bigger and heavier than the left lung. For helping with the inhalation or exhalation of gases through lungs, some of the respiratory muscles are involved. Diaphragm is responsible for respiration. When the diaphragm contracts the air is inhaled to the lungs, while it is exhaled when the diaphragm relaxes. The intercostal muscles located in the ribs helps with the contraction and relaxation of diaphragm.

45. What is blood? Discuss various components of blood and explain its importance

Answer: A fluid connective tissue consisting of plasma, blood cells and platelets making up 8% of our body weight is blood. It circulates throughout our body delivering oxygen and nutrients to various cells and tissues. An average adult carries nearly 5-6 litres of blood. Know further about the various components of blood and its importance from the link.

46. Discuss the process of urine formation in humans. Describe the structure of the kidney.

Answer: Formation of urine is carried out in three stages- glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion, all carried out by different parts of the body. Learn more with a urine formation article. The human excretory system that collects and expels out the liquid waste of the body consists of two kidneys, one urinary bladder, two ureters and one urethra. The bean-shaped structures found on either side of the backbone and protected by the ribs and muscles of the back, Kidney has a length of 10-12 cm, a width of 5-7 cm and weighs around 120-170g. They have an inner concave structure and there is a notch called hilum at the centre, through which the blood vessels and nerves enter the organ. At the inner surface of the hilum, there is a large funnel-shaped space, renal pelvis with projections called calyces. Meanwhile, structure of the kidney is given.

Capsule

The outer layer is called the capsule. Inside the kidney, there are two zones- the outer zone called cortex and the inner zone known as medulla. The cortex extends in between the medullary pyramids as renal columns called columns of Bertin.

Nephrons

Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney with two parts- glomerulus and renal tubule. Glomerulus consists of a bunch of capillaries formed by afferent arterioles. Blood from glomerulus is carried away by efferent arterioles.

The renal tubule starts with a cup-like structure called Bowman’s capsule and this encloses the glomerulus. The malpighian body consists of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule. The highly coiled structure in the tubule next to the Bowman’s capsule is the proximal convoluted tubule.

47. Draw a well-labelled diagram of the male reproductive system. Describe the functions of the primary genital organs in humans.

Answer: Primary male reproductive organ is the gonads also known as the testis that secretes hormone and even produces sex cells or gametes. Testis is responsible for the synthesis of the male reproductive cells called sperms. Testis is located outside the abdominal cavity in a pouch like structure, Scrotum. Testis has two parts, the one which produces sperm and the second that like an endocrine gland by secreting hormones. Similarly, the primary female reproductive organs are the ovaries that produce female germ cells (ovum). Also, it acts like the endocrine gland secreting the estrogen and progesterone hormones. Both ovaries are located in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity under the kidney, in both sides of the uterus. Hormones released from the ovaries help in female sexual transformation, egg formation and so on. Check out for a well-labelled diagram and further details about male reproductive system

48. With the help of a diagram explain the structure of a nerve. Discuss the importance of hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Answer: RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Question 48 solution

Detailed structure of the nerve is found here.

Meanwhile, a part of the brain that consists of neurosecretory cells and connects both nervous and endocrine systems is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus secretes various releasing hormones like gonadotropin-releasing hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormones. These hormones act on pituitary glands to stimulate other glands. Explore more about hypothalamus. Also, the pea-sized master gland located at the bottom of the brain, the pituitary gland controls and regulates other glands in the body. Hormones released by this gland are growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, LH, FSH etc. Know more with pituitary gland.

These solutions help the students to self-analyze their progress in class as well as their preparation for the exams. This helps them to plan their studies, accordingly. Some of the other resources to help the students are the RBSE Previous year papers, sample papers, syllabus and textbooks. Stay tuned and get updated with details about RBSE exam pattern.

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