The oldest recorded civilization in the world is the Mesopotamia civilization. Overall, the 4 oldest civilizations of the world are Mesopotamia Civilization, Egyptian Civilization, Indus Valley Civilization, and Chinese Civilization. This article will briefly throw light on the oldest civilizations of the world.
Oldest Civilization in the World – Mesopotamia Civilization
- Mesopotamia is a place situated in the middle of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
- This region is now a part of Iraq.
- Mesopotamian civilization was known for the advancements it made in the field of astronomy, mathematics, and literature.
- Mesopotamian civilization was very prosperous.
- Sumerian was the language which was initially used in the Mesopotamian civilization.
- Later on it was gradually replaced by the Akkadian civilization.
One of the Oldest Civilizations in the World – Egyptian Civilization
- Egyptian civilization developed along the river Nile.
- There was rich soil to grow crops due to the annual flooding of the river Nile.
- Egyptians had written records, and their writing system is known as hieroglyphics.
- The rulers of Egyptian civilization built massive monuments to demonstrate and maintain their power.
One of the Oldest Civilizations in the World – Indus Valley Civilization
- Harappan Civilization was also known as Indus Valley Civilization as the most significant shreds of evidence of the achievements of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated from Harappa.
- Apart from the Harappa, some of the important sites of the Indus Valley Civilization were Dholavira, Mohenjodaro, Ganweriwala, Lothal, Kalibangan, Surkotada, etc.
- The two most prominent sites were Harappa and Mohenjodaro, both of which are currently located in present-day Pakistan.
Indus Valley Civilization – Citadel
Many of the cities in the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappa) were divided into two or more parts.
- The Eastern part of the city was lower but larger in size. The Western part of the city was higher but they were smaller in size.
- This is the Citadel as described by the Archaeologists.
- In some of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, special buildings were constructed on the Citadel.
Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) – Worship
- People of the Indus Valley Civilization practised Nature worship and Yoni Worship.
- People of the Indus Valley Civilization worshipped Fire, called Havan Kund, trees like Peepal, Mother Goddess also known as Shakti or Matridevi.
- The people of the Indus valley civilization worshipped animals like Ox and Unicorn.
- The lord of animals was Pashupati Mahadev.
Harappan Civilization – Urban Planning
- The streets of the Harappan Civilization were well planned.
- The streets of the Harappan Civilization had a proper system of waste disposal, lighting, drainage, and water supply.
- In the Harappan Civilization, the drainage system was well-structured.
- Each house had a proper drainage system which was connected to the drainage system of the streets.
- The houses in the cities were well planned.
- The materials used for building purposes were sun-dried bricks and burnt bricks.
- Houses had separate bathing areas.
- The houses were one or two-storeyed.