Indus Valley Civilization – Major Sites

The History and Culture has an important role in both UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam and the Main Examination. A considerable fraction of the total questions asked in General Studies Paper I for UPSC IAS prelims exam comes from Indian History that amalgamated with the Culture portion. The Indian history is divided into three segments- Ancient India, Medieval India and Modern India. A rational mix of hard work and an appropriate strategy will ease the UPSC IAS Exam preparation.

Indus valley civilization is one of the four earliest civilizations in the world. The Indus valley civilization is also known as Harappan Civilization and is famous for its systematic planning based on the grid system.

The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization spreading from today’s North-East Afghanistan to Pakistan and North-West India. This civilization flourished in the river basins of the Indus and the Ghaggar-Hakra River.

There are seven important cities in Indus valley civilization. They are Mohanjodaro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhudaru, Dholavira and Banawali. Surkotada, Lothal, and Dholavira are the important port towns in the Indus valley. Harappa, Mohanjodaro, Banawali and Dholavira are considered as the four main Harappan Sites. Till 1999, over 1,056 urban areas and settlements had been found. 96 sites have been excavated, mostly in the region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the most important urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Ganeriwala, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi.

Here we are giving the list of major sites in the Indus valley civilizations along with its location, major findings which are very useful for UPSC IAS Prelims examination.

Year

Site

Location

Excavated by

Major findings

1921

Harappa

Montgomery District of Punjab in the banks of Ravi

Daya Ram Sahini

  • Sandstone statues of Human anatomy
  • Bullock carts
  • Granaries
  • Coffin burials

1922

Mohenjo-Daro

Larkana District Of Sind on the bank of Indus

R. D Banerjee

  • Great bath
  • Granary
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Seal of Pasupathi Mahadeva
  • Steatite statue of beard man
  • Bronze buffalo

1929

Sutkagendor

Baluchistan on Dast river

Stein

  • Trade point between Harappa and Babylon

1931

Chanhudaro

Sind on the Indus river

N G Majumdar

  • Bead makers shop
  • Footprint of a dog chasing a cat

1935

Amri

On the bank of Indus river

N G Majumdar

  • Antelope evidence

1953

Kalibangan

Rajasthan on the bank of Ghaggar river

Ghose

  • Fire alter
  • Camel bones
  • Furrowed land

1953

Lothal

Gujarat on Bhogva river near Gulf of

Cambay

R. Rao

  • First manmade port
  • Dockyard
  • Rice husk
  • Fire alters
  • Chess playing

1964

Surkotada

Gujarat

J P Joshi

  • Bones of horses
  • beads

1974

Banawali

Hissar district of Haryana

R S Bisht

  • Bones of horses
  • Beads
  • Barley

1985

Dholavira

Gujarat in Rann of Kutchchh

R S Bisht

  • Exclusive water management

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