Over 3.5 billion years when earth originated, the earth was crowded with a variety of species. As time passed, more than 90% of species among these got extinct. Still, the process of extinction is happening at a much faster pace, few species are added to the endangered list. Every organism is interdependent on each other. Thus existence and extinction of one organism affect the other. This thought leads to the idea of conservation of biodiversity.
The biosphere is the life-supporting portion of the earth. The diversity of living organisms exist in this sphere and their relationship with other biotic and abiotic elements altogether define the biodiversity. In 1985, E.O Wilson coined the term. Biodiversity is of three types specifically genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. It is the reservoir of food, habitat, shelter, clothes, etc. and has certain productive, social, ethical, economic, ecological and legal values. The day to day increased demand has exploited it and has posed many threats to the biodiversity. Habitat destruction and partition, over-exploitation, pollution, poaching of wildlife and the introduction of exotic species by horticulture, agriculture, accidental transport, and diseases are some threats to biodiversity.
Biodiversity conservation is a critical action that has to be taken because resources used by humans come from this. Conservation is the responsibility of each individual of society and government. As a part of the personal effort, individuals can save paper, water and be more eco-friendly. The government has taken steps to protect the wildlife and their environment. Protected areas like the zoo, national parks, biosphere reserves, and sanctuaries are the sealed areas and are under the control of the government. Every human activity like agriculture, deforestation, and hunting are banned here.
Biosphere Reserve: Biosphere reserves are large areas which conserve biodiversity and civilization of that region. They preserve and protect tribal groups in addition to wildlife. They include sanctuaries, national parks etc. A famous biosphere reserve of India is Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.
Zoo: Zoological parks are establishments where wild animals are kept for research, preservation and also for public exhibition and tourism. E.g. Mysore zoo, Indira Gandhi zoological park.
National Park: These are reserved habitats for both flora and fauna especially endangered species. National parks cover large areas where animals can freely move around. Overall they protect the ecosystem. E.g. Gir forest national park, Periyar national park.
Sanctuary: Sanctuaries are largely protected habitats for animals. Here animals are not caged and reserved for a particular type of animal. E.g. Krishna wildlife sanctuary.
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