“Birth control is the use of certain devices, drugs or surgical procedures in both males and females, to prevent conception. “
Birth control includes a variety of devices and procedures by which conception can be prevented. These methods can be implemented both in men and women. Out of the several methods, only a few are reliable. The effectiveness depends on how carefully the method is used.
Let us have a detailed look at the different types of birth control methods.
Also Read: Population Control
Birth Control methods
Birth control could be achieved in the following ways-
Natural Birth Control
Natural birth control methods include total and continuous abstinence and the rhythm method. The rhythm method involves having no intercourse or protected intercourse during the time when the woman is fertile. A woman is fertile for 9 days every month during which she is most likely to conceive. The fertile period starts 5 days before ovulation and continues for 3 days after ovulation.
This method involves putting up a barrier between the male and the female sex cells (sperms and ova). It blocks the sperms from reaching the ovary, thus preventing fertilization. The barrier method can be used by both men and women.
Women could use items like the contraceptive sponge, diaphragm, cervical shield or cervical cap to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg.
The barrier method in males involves the use of male condoms.
The hormonal method of birth control interferes with the hormonal balance in a woman’s body in order to hamper fertilization, ovulation or fertilized egg implantation. It could be done with the help of contraceptive pills, estrogen and progestin-releasing patches or vaginal rings. Birth control injections are also available nowadays.
Intrauterine Devices (IUD)
Intrauterine devices or IUDs are small T-shaped devices that are planted in the uterus. There are two types of IUDs.
- Copper IUD– Releases small amounts of copper in the uterus which prevents sperms from reaching the ovary.
- Hormonal IUD– Releases progestin in the body which prevents the formulation of eggs.
Both men and women could be surgically operated to prevent fertilization. For women, the process is called Tubal ligation and for men, it is called Vasectomy.
In tubal ligation, the fallopian tube is either cut or sealed so that eggs do not reach the uterus at all.
Vasectomy involves the cutting and sealing of the vas deferens so that the sperms do not enter the ejaculation stream.
Also Read: Contraception
This was a brief overview of the different birth control methods. For more information on what is birth control and birth control methods, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.