Difference between Genetic Engineering And Recombinant DNA Technology

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering is used to refer to the methods that allow intentional manipulation of the genetic material. It is done to repair, alter, enhance or suppress the form and functioning of the particular molecule. It is sometimes also known as genetic modification.

It includes transfer of genes, recombination of genes and synthesis of artificial genetic material. An organism that is created by the use of genetic engineering is referred to as genetically modified organism (GMO). It is used in medicine, agriculture, industries and other biotechnological applications.

It is used in agriculture to produce crops with better quality and greater quantity. It is used in medicine for the production of hormones, enzymes and vaccines. Gene knock-out and knock-in therapies have been developed to study the effect of a particular gene.

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology (RDT), which emerged in the mid-twentieth century, helps in the creation of recombinant DNA molecules. It basically involves joining two DNA molecules from two different sources to form a recombinant DNA, and introducing it into an organism’s genome via a vector to gain enhanced functioning of the gene.

When the Swiss microbiologist, Werner Arber discovered restriction enzymes in 1968, the possibility of RDT arose. The restriction enzymes function to cleave DNA molecules at particular sites that can be joined with another cleaved DNA molecule to gain a recombinant DNA.

All in all, genetic engineering is a broader term used to describe all the techniques that can be used for the alteration and modification of DNA, whereas Recombinant DNA Technology is one of the techniques that is used to produce recombinant DNA.

Genetic Engineering vs. Recombinant DNA Technology

Genetic Engineering

Recombinant DNA Technology


Genetic Engineering refers to techniques that are used for intentional manipulation of genetic material to alter, repair, enhance or suppress the form and functioning of that particular molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology is a technique that is used to prepare recombinant DNA by combining cleaved DNA molecules from two different sources.

Explore BYJU’S Biology for more detailed information.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different techniques of genetic engineering?

The different techniques of genetic engineering include: Microprojectile Bombardment, Electroporation, Microinjection, etc.

Why is recombinant DNA very useful in improving our health condition?

With the advancements in RDT, scientists are able to produce vaccines and hormones, such as insulin, interferon and growth factors that help in improving human health significantly.

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