Amongst all living entities, humans are the most evolved as they are highly structured and organized species. Humans follow a particular hierarchy that can be easily interpreted on a scale from the smallest to the largest. There are six major levels of the organization as per ecologists, they are:
An ecosystem is a biological system that occurs naturally and is functional. It has multiple species dwelling in it. These species are influenced by one another due to constant interaction. They are also affected by abiotic factors of the ecosystem such as temperature, pressure, nutrients etc. A species is a basic unit of classification. It is a type of entity of which different individuals can interact and reproduce offsprings of a similar kind. They exhibit similar characteristics and are hence capable of interbreeding.
Interspecies interaction or reproduction is either not possible or results in infertile offsprings. A population is a group of individuals or species that live in a specific time in a particular region. They are multiple individuals of the same species across multiple ecosystems if a population migrates to a different area of land. Some population differ in the characteristics they exhibit such as the colour of the eye, hair, height, complexion so on due changes in the genes. A community is intercommunication between entities from different species except for the interactions with the abiotic factors. In a given place, a community often shares a specific geographical area.
Species in a community can interact in three ways – predation, mutualism, competition. Major communities are self-regulating and self-sustaining while minor communities depend upon other communities and form the building blocks for major communities.
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|Ecology: Organisms and Their Environment|
|Organisms and Population Attributes|