Biotech or biotechnology is a stream in biology which deals with the application of technology to biological processes occurring in living entities or their subordinates to transform a particular process for their specific utilization.
It is also one of the oldest industrial technologies ever recorded. For instance, one of the biotechnological technique is the application of fermentation in alcohol production. In recent times it has grown and expanded into genomics, applied immunology, recombinant gene methodologies, pharmaceuticals and so on with its applicability extending across major fields such as – agriculture, genetic engineering, medicine etc. It is also extensively used in bioinformatics for exploration in the field of research and development and for the production and extraction from living entities through biochemical engineering.
With time, biotechnology sophisticated from archaic to advanced procedures such as:
- Protein Engineering
- DNA Manipulation
- Immobilized enzymes
- Tissue culture
- Cell catalysis
- Protoplast fusion
Biotechnology led to the synthesis of many services and products for the welfare of mankind, such as:
- Cell biology
- Molecular biology
- Chemical Engineering
- Genetic Engineering
Some of the most important and path-breaking contributions of biotechnology are:
- Plant tissue culture
- Test-tube baby or Invitro fertilization
- The Recombinant DNA technique
- DNA vaccines
- Production of Humulin
Principles Of Biotechnology
The inception of biotechnology was initiated with two technologies –
Chemical Engineering –
One of the main distinctions between chemical engineering and biotechnology is the scale of operation. Most of the products from biotechnology are low on volume of biochemicals and high on value.
Modern biotechnology elevated the scope of pharmaceuticals to the highest it has ever been. This application turned out to be extremely beneficial as it produced excellent products both in terms of quality and quantity, developing storing and maintaining procedures. Examples – Enzymes, Vaccines, Antibiotics.
Genetic Engineering –
The basic principle of this process is to alter existing organisms by slightly modifying their genetic makeup which involves using the recombinant DNA technology.
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