Periodic Table Trends On The Properties Of Elements

The modern periodic table is based on the law that the properties of an element are a periodic function of their atomic number. These properties are related to the electronic configuration of the elements. We observe a common trend in properties as we move across a period from left to right or down the group. This trend in properties is known as periodic properties. The important periodic properties are atomic size, metallic character, non-metallic character, ionization potential, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

periodic table trends

Periodic Table Trends

Periodic Table Trends:

The following trend in periodic properties of elements is observed:

Atomic size Trends:

The distance between the center of the nucleus and the outermost shell of an atom is known as the atomic radius. In a group the atomic size increases due to the addition of shells as we move from one period to another. Across a period the atomic size decreases as the number of shells remain the same while the nuclear charge increases. This leads to the pulling of electrons from the outermost shell towards the nucleus thereby decreasing the size.

Metallic character Trends:

The elements which lose electrons to form cations are known as metals. Metallic character increases as we move down the group because the atomic size increases which lead to easy loss of electrons. On the other hand, it decreases across a period as we move from left to right. This happens because there is an increase in nuclear charge which makes it difficult for an atom to lose electrons.

Non-metallic character Trends:

The elements which have a tendency to gain electrons are known as non-metals. The tendency to gain electrons increases on moving across a period due to an increase in the nuclear charge and decrease in the atomic size.  Hence non-metallic character increases across a period. As we move down the group the non-metallic character decreases due to increase in the atomic size.

Ionization potential Trends:

Ionization potential is defined as the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the outermost shell of a gaseous atom and convert it into a positively charged gaseous ion.The periodic properties in terms of ionization potential increase because the atomic size decreases across a period due to increase in the nuclear charge. When we move down the group, ionization potential decreases due to the increase in atomic size.

Melting Point Trends:

The melting point of an element is basically the energy required to change the state of an element from its solid state to its liquid state. Which essentially implies breaking a few bonds. Thus, higher the stronger the bond between the atoms, higher will be the melting point. Let us look at the elements in the ascending order of their melting points.

Melting Point

Element

Atomic Number

  -272 Helium  (He) 2
  -259 Hydrogen (H) 1
  -249 Neon (Ne) 10
  -220 Fluorine  (F) 9
  -218 Oxygen  (O) 8
  -210 Nitrogen N 7
  -189 Argon Ar 18
  -157 Krypton Kr 36
  -112 Xenon Xe 54
  -101 Chlorine Cl 17
  -71 Radon Rn 86
  -39 Mercury Hg 80
  -7 Bromine Br 35
  27 Francium Fr 87
  29 Cesium Cs 55
  30 Gallium Ga 31
39 Rubidium Rb 37
44 Phosphorus P 15
64 Potassium K 19
98 Sodium Na 11
113 Sulfur S 16
114 Iodine I 53
157 Indium In 49
180 Lithium Li 3
217 Selenium Se 34
232 Tin Sn 50
254 Polonium Po 84
271 Bismuth Bi 83
302 Astatine At 85
303 Thallium Tl 81
321 Cadmium Cd 48
327 Lead Pb 82
420 Zinc Zn 30
449 Tellurium Te 52
630 Antimony Sb 51
639 Magnesium Mg 12
640 Neptunium Np 93
640 Plutonium Pu 94
660 Aluminum Al 13
700 Radium Ra 88
725 Barium Ba 56
769 Strontium Sr 38
795 Cerium Ce 58
816.8 Arsenic As 33
822 Europium Eu 63
824 Ytterbium Yb 70
827 Nobelium No 102
839 Calcium Ca 20
860 Einsteinium Es 99
900 Californium Cf 98
920 Lanthanum La 57
935 Praseodymium Pr 59
937 Germanium Ge 32
962 Silver Ag 47
986 Berkelium Bk 97
994 Americium Am 95
1010 Neodymium Nd 60
1050 Actinium Ac 89
1064 Gold Au 79
1072 Samarium Sm 62
1083 Copper Cu 29
1100 Promethium Pm 61
1132 Uranium U 92
1245 Manganese Mn 25
1278 Beryllium Be 4
1311 Gadolinium Gd 64
1340 Curium Cm 96
1360 Terbium Tb 65
  1410 Silicon Si 14
  1412 Dysprosium Dy 66
  1453 Nickel Ni 28
  1470 Holmium Ho 67
  1495 Cobalt Co 27
  1522 Erbium Er 68
  1523 Yttrium Y 39
  1527 Fermium Fm 100
  1535 Iron Fe 26
  1539 Scandium Sc 21
  1545 Thulium Tm 69
  1552 Palladium Pd 46
  1568 Protactinium Pa 91
  1627 Lawrencium Lr 103
  1656 Lutetium Lu 71
  1660 Titanium Ti 22
  1750 Thorium Th 90
  1772 Platinum Pt 78
  1852 Zirconium Zr 40
  1857 Chromium Cr 24
  1890 Vanadium V 23
  1966 Rhodium Rh 45
  2150 Hafnium Hf 72
  2200 Technetium Tc 43
  2250 Ruthenium Ru 44
  2300 Boron B 5
  2410 Iridium Ir 77
  2468 Niobium Nb 41
  2617 Molybdenum Mo 42
  2996 Tantalum Ta 73
  3045 Osmium Os 76
  3180 Rhenium Re 75
  3410 Tungsten W 74
  3500 Carbon C 6
    Mendelevium Md 101
    Rutherfordium Rf 104
    Dubnium Db 105
    Seaborgium  Sg 106
    Bohrium Bh 107
    Hassium Hs 108
    Meitnerium Mt 109
    Darmstadtium Ds 110
    Roentgenium Rg 111
    Copernicium Cn 112
    Nihonium Nh 113
    Flerovium Fl 114
    Moscovium Mc 115
    Livermorium Lv 116
    Tennessine Ts 117
    Oganesson Og 118

Boiling Point Trends:

Just like how the strength of the bonds between atoms affect the Melting Point, the boiling point depends on the heat energy required to create a transition from liquid to gaseous state. Have a look at this table with the elements of the periodic table arranged in order of increasing boiling points.

Boiling 
point

Element

Symbol

Atomic number

-269 Helium He 2
-253 Hydrogen H 1
-246 Neon Ne 10
-196 Nitrogen N 7
-188 Fluorine F 9
-186 Argon Ar 18
-183 Oxygen O 8
-153 Krypton Kr 36
-108 Xenon Xe 54
-62 Radon Rn 86
-35 Chlorine Cl 17
58.8 Bromine Br 35
184 Iodine I 53
280 Phosphorus P 15
337 Astatine At 85
357 Mercury Hg 80
445 Sulfur S 16
613 Arsenic As 33
677 Francium Fr 87
678 Cesium Cs 55
685 Selenium Se 34
688 Rubidium Rb 37
760 Potassium K 19
765 Cadmium Cd 48
774 Potassium K 19
883 Sodium Na 11
907 Zinc Zn 30
962 Polonium Po 84
990 Tellurium Te 52
1090 Magnesium Mg 12
1140 Barium Ba 56
1347 Lithium Li 3
1384 Strontium Sr 38
1457 Thallium Tl 81
1466 Ytterbium Yb 70
1484 Calcium Ca 20
1560 Bismuth Bi 83
1597 Europium Eu 63
1727 Thulium Tm 69
1737 Radium Ra 88
1740 Lead Pb 82
1750 Antimony Sb 51
1900 Samarium Sm 62
1962 Manganese Mn 25
2000 Indium In 49
2212 Silver Ag 47
2270 Tin Sn 50
2355 Silicon Si 14
2403 Gallium Ga 31
2467 Aluminum Al 13
2510 Erbium Er 68
2550 Boron B 5
2562 Dysprosium Dy 66
2567 Copper Cu 29
2607 Americium Am 95
2672 Chromium Cr 24
2720 Holmium Ho 67
2732 Nickel Ni 28
2750 Iron Fe 26
2807 Gold Au 79
2830 Germanium Ge 32
2832 Scandium Sc 21
2870 Cobalt Co 27
2927 Palladium Pd 46
2970 Beryllium Be 4
3000 Promethium Pm 61
3041 Terbium Tb 65
3127 Praseodymium Pr 59
3127 Neodymium Nd 60
3200 Actinium Ac 89
3233 Gadolinium Gd 64
3235 Plutonium Pu 94
3257 Cerium Ce 58
3287 Titanium Ti 22
3315 Lutetium Lu 71
3337 Yttrium Y 39
3380 Vanadium V 23
3469 Lanthanum La 57
3727 Rhodium Rh 45
3818 Uranium U 92
3827 Platinum Pt 78
3900 Ruthenium Ru 44
3902 Neptunium Np 93
4377 Zirconium Zr 40
4527 Iridium Ir 77
4612 Molybdenum Mo 42
4790 Thorium Th 90
4827 Carbon C 6
4877 Technetium Tc 43
4927 Niobium Nb 41
5027 Osmium Os 76
5400 Hafnium Hf 72
5425 Tantalum Ta 73
5627 Rhenium Re 75
5660 Tungsten W 74
Protactinium Pa 91
Curium Cm 96
Berkelium Bk 97
Californium Cf 98
Einsteinium Es 99
Fermium Fm 100
Mendelevium Md 101
Nobelium No 102
Lawrencium Lr 103
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Dubnium Db 105
Seaborgium Sg 106
Bohrium Bh 107
Hassium Hs 108
Meitnerium Mt 109
Darmstadtium Ds 110
Roentgenium Rg 111
Copernicium Cn 112
Nihonium Nh 113
Flerovium Fl 114
Moscovium Ms 115
Livermorium Lv 116
Tennessine Ts 117
Oganesson Og 118

 

So we have discussed the trends of periodic properties followed by the elements of the modern periodic table. Click here to explore the world of Chemistry on Byju’s.


Practise This Question

On moving from left to right across a period, the atomic size ______.