Male Declaration on Air Pollution

The Male Declaration on air pollution was signed in 1998 by members of the South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP). This is a topic under the International Relations and Environment & Ecology sections of the UPSC syllabus. In this article, you can read all about the Male Declaration on air pollution.

Male Declaration

The Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and Its Likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia, also called, Male Declaration in short, was signed in 1998 by the members of the South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP) in Male, capital of the Maldives.

  • The backdrop of the adoption of the Male Declaration was when in 1998, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) along with the the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) brought to notice the possible impacts of transboundary air pollution in South Asia.

Male Declaration Objective

The chief objective of the declaration is to “aid the process of providing a clean environment through clean air”.

  • It calls for regional cooperation among the South Asian countries to address the threat of transboundary air pollution and its adverse effects on the people and the environment.
  • The implementation of the declaration is carried out in phases by the National Focal Points (NFPs) and the National Implementing Agencies (NIAs) appointed by each member country.
  • From 1999 to 2013, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) provided funding.
  • Coordination of the programme is facilitated by the Secretariat at the Regional Resource Centre for Asia Pacific (RRC. AP), Asian Institute of Technology, located in Pathumthani, Thailand.

Male Declaration Activities

During the course of the declaration’s implementation, many activities were performed such as:

  1. Establishment of a network of policymakers and stakeholders.
  2. Performing monitoring and impact assessment.
  3. Conducting impact assessment studies and communicating to policymakers and other stakeholders.
  4. Initiated policy measures to control air pollution.

Significance of Male Declaration on Air Pollution

The Male Declaration is significant because it concerns a very serious and reverberating issue, that of air pollution.

  • The declaration recognises the significant transboundary dimension of air pollution in the South Asian region.
  • Key areas for action include the reduction of harmful emissions which have an impact on human health, food security, ecosystems and corrosion, as well as on economic development. 
  • Emission of air pollutants has an impact on various sectors such as agriculture (food security) and human health.
  • The social and economic impacts of air pollution are very wide-ranging and deep.
  • Air pollution can affect people directly, through breathing unhealthy air, and indirectly by damaging the environment in which they live and reducing the yield of crops they eat.

Also read: Air Pollutants

South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)

SACEP was founded in 1982 by eight South Asian countries with an aim to enhance regional cooperation, protection and management of the environment.

SACEP Member Countries:

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Bangladesh
  3. Bhutan
  4. India
  5. Maldives
  6. Nepal
  7. Pakistan
  8. Sri Lanka

SACEP implements many programmes in the fields of environment education, environment legislation, biodiversity, air pollution, and the protection and management of the coastal environment.

SACEP is also the secretariat for the South Asian Seas Programme.

It is headquartered in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Male Declaration on Air Pollution:- Download PDF Here

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