Civil Nuclear Cooperation Signed - [July 27, 2007] This Day in History

27 July 2007

  • On July 27, 2007 Indian and US policymakers came to an agreement on civil nuclear cooperation

 

What Happened? 

  • On July 27, 2007 policymakers from both the countries signed an accord on civil nuclear cooperation, however the text was agreed on August 1, 2007.

 

Background

  • The relationship between India and the US has not always been so comfortable and cordial as one finds them today, but for a long period of time, the bilateral relation remained cold and the main reason behind such bitter relation was the “nuclear factor”.
  • In the beginning India received the assistance from US and other countries to exploit atom for peaceful purposes, but slowly after India rejected to be the signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and in 1974 test fired its first nuclear explosion known as Peaceful Nuclear Explosion.
  • The nuclear test was followed by harsh reactions from across the world and in particular the passage of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act in 1978 by US was aimed to put embargo on nuclear commerce with India.
  • Soon after the disintegration of USSR in 1991, India began increasing her cordial relation with US. Again in late 1990s India test fires five nuclear tests at Pokhran, which lead to implementation of economic sanctions against India.
  • In 2006, the Hyde Act was signed by President Bush, which is considered as a big step in the direction of reintegrating India with global nuclear market. The act grants the official basis for the 123 Agreement with India.
  • The legislation on the nuclear deal was signed by President G.W. Bush and approved by the U.S. Congress, into law, now called the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Non-proliferation Enhancement Act. The agreement was signed on October 10 2008, it is also known as 123 agreement.

 

Important from UPSC 

  • On July 27, 2007 policymakers from both the countries signed an accord on civil nuclear cooperation, however the text was agreed on August 1, 2007.
  • It is entitled, as “Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (123 Agreement)”. The 123 Agreement was introduced in the US Congress and it was passed with an overwhelming majority in both the Houses.

 

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