UPSC 2017-2018: PIB Summary and Analysis


Topic: International Relations

India’s trade and investment relationship with Ethiopia is very strong, says President; symbolic of India’s commitment to African Continent


  • Ethiopia and India have been trading with each other for centuries.
  • Trade relations between Ethiopia and India flourished during the ancient Axumite Empire from the 1st century AD.
  • Today the economic relationship covers trade, private investment, concessional loans for infrastructure projects and development assistance, largely for capacity building.
  • India is now among the top three foreign investors in Ethiopia. Indian investment has made a mark in textiles and garments, engineering, plastics, water management, consultancy and ICT, education, pharmaceuticals and healthcare. Indian investments in Ethiopia have had a significant presence in manufacturing and value addition to local resources.
  • At the Third India Africa Forum Summit in New Delhi in 2015, India had announced the offer of concessional credit of US$ 10 billion over the next five years to Africa. This was in addition to the on-going credit programme.
  • We have also committed to a grant assistance of US$ 600 million that will include an India-Africa Development Fund of US$ 100 million and an India-Africa Health Fund of US$ 10 million.
  • India’s willingness to positively consider support for power transmission projects in Ethiopia, as well as announced specific assistance in the areas of healthcare, education and agriculture was expressed.
  • The two Presidents witnessed the signing of two bilateral agreements – the first on Trade Facilitation and the second related to the Information Communication and Media sector.



Topic: Science and Technology

Embryo Transfer Technology, a promising revolution in Bovine breeding


  • Embryo transfer technology (ETT) has revolutionized the breeding strategies in Bovines as a tool to optimize the genetic improvement in cattle.
  • Department of Animal husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries in co-operation with 12 States has undertaken a Mass Embryo Transfer programme in Indigenous Breeds under the scheme, National Mission on Bovine Productivity.
  • The programme is implemented with the objective of conservation and development of indigenous breeds under Rashtriya Gokul Mission.
  • The technology now being taken up to the doorstep of the farmers will result in rapid propogation of high genetic merit indigenous cattle.

Advantages through the use of ETT,

  • a farmer can get a 5-6 fold increase in number of offsprings ,
  • the calves so born will be of high genetic merit and
  • the offsprings born will be free from diseases.



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