UPSC 2017-18: PIB Summary and Analysis Aug 05

UPSC 2017-18: PIB Summary and Analysis Aug 07 for IAS Exam Preparation.

PM's video message for the second edition of "Samvad"- Global Initiative on 
Conflict Avoidance and Environment Consciousness
  • “Samvad”- Global Initiative on Conflict Avoidance and Environment Consciousness– Second edition of conference is being held at Yangon, Myanmar.
  • Societies across the world are facing several questions today, such as:
    1. How to avoid conflict?
    2. How to address a global challenge like climate change?
    3. How to live in peace and harmony and secure our lives?
  • Ancient Indian concept of “Tarka Shastra” is founded on dialogue and debate as the model for exchange of views and avoidance of conflict.
  • Samvad” or “dialogue” helps
    • To cut through deep rooted religious stereotypes and prejudices that divide communities across the world and
    • Sow seeds of conflict between nations and societies.
Prelims Facts

Tarka Sastra

  • Tarka Sastra is a science of dialectics, logic and reasoning, and art of debate that analyzes the nature and source of knowledge and its validity.
  • Sastra in Sanskrit means that which gives teaching, instruction or command. Tarka means debate or an argument.
  • According to one reckoning, there are six sastras. Vyakarana is one of them.
  • Four of the sastras are particularly important Vyakarana, Mimamsa, Tarka, and Vedanta.
  • The sastra has concepts called “poorva paksha” and “apara paksha“. When one raises a point (poorva paksha) the other one criticizes it (apara paksha). Then the debate starts. Each one tries to support his point of view by getting various references.
  • The meaning of the word tarka also is specific, in that it does not imply a pure logical analysis but a complex activity of discourse guided by strict definitions and goals so as to have. This concept is referred in Bhagawad Gita as “vAdaH pravadatAmasmi” (vibhooti yOga).
  • Tarka is the process of questioning and cross-questioning that leads to a particular conclusion. It is a form of supposition that can be used as an aid to the attainment of valid knowledge.
  • There are several scholars well-versed in Tarka Sastras – Adi Shankara (788-820 CE), Uddyotkar (Nyayavartik, 6th-7th century), Vācaspati Miśra (Tatparyatika, 9th century), Udayanacharya (Tatparyaparishuddhi, 10th century), Jayanta Bhatta (Nyayamanjari, 9th century), Vishwanath (Nyayasutravrtti, 17th century), and Radhamohan Goswami (Nyayasutravivaran, 18th century), Kumaran Asan. Paruthiyur Krishna Sastri and Sengalipuram Anantarama Dikshitar were specialized in Vyakarana, Mimamsa and Tarka Sastra. Also, Krishna Sastri excelled all those scholars of his contemporary period in Tarka Sastra.

 

Shri Nitin Gadkari says India hopeful operations at Chabahar Port will start by 2018
  • The Minister for Road Transport & Highways and Shipping Shri Nitin Gadkari has said that the government is keen on developing Chabahar Port in Iran and is hopeful of starting operations by 2018.

Memorandum of Understanding

  • As per an MoU signed between India and Iran in May last year, India is to equip and operate two berths in Chabahar Port Phase-I with capital investment of USD 85.21 million and annual revenue expenditure of USD 22.95 million on a 10-year lease.

Strategic importance of Chabahar port:

  • Iran’s Chabahar port located in the Sistan-Baluchistan Province on the south-eastern coast is a port of great strategic utility for India.
  • It lies outside the Persian Gulf and is accessed from India’s western coast.
  • The port will make way for India to bypass Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan using a sea-land route.At present, Pakistan does not allow India to transport through its territory to Afghanistan. It has, however, recently allowed some Afghan shipments to come to India.
  • This will also give momentum to the International North-South Transport Corridor of which both are initial signatories along with Russia. Iran is the key gateway in this project. It entails the ship, rail, and road routes for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia. The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Astrakhan etc.
  • It would counter Chinese presence in the Arabian sea through the support to Pakistan in developing Gwadar port. It can be used to station security vessels for merchant ships off the African coast apart from giving the country a foothold in the western Arabian Sea, which is important as many of its energy imports pass through the route.

 

UPSC Mains Practice Questions
  1. “Man must relate to nature, man must revere nature, not merely consider it a resource to be exploited” Discuss.
  2. Why is Chabahar of strategic importance for India? Despite Chabahar’s strategic importance, India has failed to develop the port even after many years. Examine why and suggest solutions.

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