28 Dec 2019: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 28 Dec 2019:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A.GS1 Related
B.GS2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Mahadayi river dispute: if need be, will go against Union ministry, says Sawant
2. Personal queries directly linked to establishing citizenship: SC
C.GS3 Related 
ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY
1. Winged visitors flock to Pulicat, with birdwatchers in tow
2. ‘Climate change caused 15 disasters this year’
ECONOMY
1. Gross NPAs may rise to 9.9% by next Sept., says RBI report
2. Falling revenue risks fiscal parameters: RBI
INFRASTRUCTURE
1. Commercial trial runs begin on the freight corridor
D.GS4 Related
E.Editorials
Economy
1. How not to counter economic stagnation
Internal Security
1. Decisive shift
F.Tidbits
F.Prelims Fact
1. Villagers in M.P. oppose removal of godman’s shrine
2. CM deprived Delhiites of Centre’s housing scheme benefits, says Puri
3. Compulsory renewal of OCI cards goes
H.Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam
I.Practice Questions for UPSC Mains Exam

A. GS1 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

B. GS2 Related

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. Mahadayi river dispute: if need be, will go against Union ministry, says Sawant

Context:

Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change’s stand that environment clearance (EC) is not required for Karnataka’s Kalsa-Bhanduri drinking water project on the Mahadayi River.

Background:

  • The Mahadayi River also known as Mandovi is described as the lifeline of the Indian state of Goa. The Mandovi and the Zuari are the two primary rivers in the state of Goa. Mandovi joins with the Zuari at a common creek at Cabo Aguada, forming the Mormugao
  • The Mahadayi River originates from a cluster of 30 springs at Bhimgadin the Western Ghats in the Belagavi district of Karnataka. The river has catchment area are in Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra. With its cerulean waters, Dudhsagar Falls and Varapoha Falls, it is also known as the Gomati in a few places.
  • The sharing of the waters of this river is a cause of dispute between the governments of Karnataka and Goa. The Karnataka government proposes to divert some water from the Mahadayi river to the Malaprabha River basin as part of the Kalasa-Banduri Nala project. Goa has been opposing the Kalsa-Bhanduri project.
  • Mahadayi Water Tribunal under Interstate River Water Disputes Act had been constituted to decide the sharing of the river waters by the riparian states.
  • In August 2018, Mahadayi Water Tribunal verdict permitted Goa to use 24 tmcft, Karnataka to use 5.4 tmcft (including 3.9 tmcft for export outside the basin) and Maharashtra to use 1.33 tmcft for consumptive purposes.
  • The tribunal also directed the Centre to set up the Mahadayi Water Management Authority to implement its report and final decision.
  • Karnataka approached the Supreme Court challenging the Water tribunal’s allocation of water to the states.

Karnataka’s Arguments:

  • To resolve the severe water crisis in its northern districts of Bagalkot, Gadag, Dharwad and Belagavi, Karnataka had been planning to divert water from the Mahadayi to dams and barrages since the 1970s.
  • Karnataka believes that surplus water from Mahadayi drains into the Arabian sea and, therefore, it should be better utilised by diverting it into the deficit basin in Malaprabha to meet the basic water needs of the people.

Goa’s arguments:

  • Goa is worried that the proposed inter-basin water transfer would harm the sensitive ecology of the Western Ghats.
  • Goa argues that its population is dependent on the river’s natural path and any move to divert it would affect its fragile ecosystem.
  • The Mahadayi holds a special significance for Goa because it is one of the few sweet-water sources in the state and the proposed move would affect water supply for drinking and irrigation.

Details:

Following the Union MoEFCC’s stand that environment clearance (EC) is not required for Karnataka’s Kalsa-Bhanduri drinking water project on the Mahadayi River, Goa Chief Minister has stated that the case is in the Supreme Court pending decision and “if required”, Goa would go against the Union Ministry in the Mahadayi river issue.

2. Personal queries directly linked to establishing citizenship: SC

Context:

  • Kerala and West Bengal state governments have suspended the updating of National Population Register (NPR) amid apprehensions that NPR will lead to the National Register of Citizens (NRC).

Background:

  • The central government has so far denied any link between the National Population Register (NPR), which is to establish usual residency, and the National Register of Citizens (NRC), meant to establish citizenship.

Details:

Supreme Court Judgment, 2005:

  • The Supreme Court, in a 2005 judgment, has clearly held that these personal questions about a person’s place and date of birth, his parents’ names and their place of birth are directly associated with “establishing citizenship”.
  • The Judgment holds that in order to establish one’s citizenship, normally he or she may be required to give evidence of (i) his date of birth (ii) place of birth (iii) name of his parents (iv)their place of birth and citizenship.
  • The court explained that these facts figured especially in the context of establishing citizenship because they “would necessarily be within the personal knowledge of the person concerned and not of the authorities of the State”. In case of doubts about a person’s citizenship, the burden of proving that these facts were true was on the person concerned.

Citizenship rules, 2003:

  • The 2005 judgment came just over a year after the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules of 2003 was notified in December 2003.
  • The Rules clearly linked the NPR and the NRC. Rule 4(3) of the Citizenship Rules states that personal details collected for the ‘Population Register’ would be used in the preparation of the National Register of Indian Citizens.

C. GS3 Related

Category: ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY

1. Winged visitors flock to Pulicat, with birdwatchers in tow

Context:

The annual flamingo festival in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh.

Details:

  • District authorities are planning to conduct the Flamingo Festival in January 2020.
  • The number of birds is expected to be much higher than usual thanks to copious rains in 2019.
  • Four venues — Sullurpeta, B.V. Palem, Atakanithippa and Nelapattu — have been selected for holding various cultural programmes and stepping up awareness on the brackish water ecosystem during the festival.

Avian Biodiversity:

  • More than 40,000 flamingos can be seen in action at the lake. Birds like Black-tailed godwit and Kentish plover, which are rare visitors, have also arrived at the lake this time.
  • A variety of aquatic and terrestrial birds, including painted storks, large and little egrets, grey pelicans, grey herons, and water birds like northern pintails, black-winged stilts, northern shovellers, common teal, seagulls, terns, sandpipers, and common coots have come in large numbers this time.
  • About 75 bird species visit the sanctuary, of which 30 bird species are migratory. The other feeding migrants that can be spotted are pelicans, painted storks, open-billed storks, grey herons, cormorants, white ibises, spoonbills, egrets, reef herons, and spot-billed ducks.
  • Breeding activity is on in full swing at Nelapattu, where one could see endangered species like grey pelicans, open-billed storks, little cormorants, spoonbills, white ibises and night herons.

Other Biodiversity:

  • The lake supports rich biodiversity and high biomass of fishes, prawns, crustaceans, coelenterates and planktons.
  • Invertebrates like prawns, planktons, coelenterates, annelids, molluscs and echinoderms thrive here, as do reptiles like monitor lizard, calotes, cobra, Russel’s viper, and krait, and schools of fish like sablefish, white, black and silver pomfret.

Additional Information:

  • Pulicat Lagoon is the second largest brackish water lagoon in India, after Chilika Lake. The Lagoon is one of the three important wetlands to attract North-East Monsoon rain clouds during October to December season.
  • Two rivers which feed the lagoon are the Arani River at the southern tip and the Kalangi River from the northwest, in addition to some smaller streams.
  • The Buckingham Canal, a navigation channel, is part of the lagoon on its western side. The lagoon exchanges water with the Bay of Bengal.
  • The lake and its river basins are located both in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu The lake and its drainage river basins become interstate river basin as per Interstate River Water Disputes Act 1956. Most of the lake area including its water outlet to the sea is located in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.

2.‘Climate change caused 15 disasters this year’

Context:

Report by the British charity Christian Aid.

Details:

  • Assembling its report, from official figures, estimates by NGOs and aid bodies, scientific studies and media reports, the charity said the disasters displaced millions and caused widespread deaths.
  • 2019 is set to be the second hottest year in history and each of the disasters in the report has a link with climate change.
  • The report states that at least 15 natural disasters linked to climate change in 2019 caused damage of over $1 billion each and seven of them cost at least $10 billion.
  • The major disasters of the year 2019 include the floods that ravaged north India, typhoon Lekima in China, Hurricane Dorian in the U.S., floods in China, floods in the Midwest and the southern U.S., typhoon Hagibis in Japan and the California wildfires.
  • The charity said the majority of deaths were caused by just two events, in India and southern Africa, which called it “a reflection of how the world’s poorest people pay the heaviest price for the consequences of climate change.

Category: ECONOMY

1. Gross NPAs may rise to 9.9% by next Sept., says RBI report

Context:

H. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam

Q 1: Which of the following statements are correct?
  1. The Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 (IRWD Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted under Article 263 of the Constitution of India.
  2. River water use is included in the Union list of the 7th schedule of the Indian constitution.

Options:

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
See

Answer

Ans: d

Explanation:

  • The Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 (IRWD Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted under Article 262 of Constitution of India on the eve of reorganization of states on linguistic basis to resolve the water disputes that would arise in the use, control and distribution of an interstate river or river valley.
  • Article 262 of the Indian Constitution provides a role for the Central government in adjudicating conflicts surrounding inter-state rivers that arise among the state/regional governments.
  • River waters use / harnessing is included in states jurisdiction (entry 17 of state list, Schedule 7 of Indian Constitution). However, union government can make laws on regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys when expedient in the public interest (entry 56 of union list, Schedule 7 of Indian Constitution). 

 

Q 2: Which of the following statements are correct?
  1. The GST (Compensation to States) Act, 2017 mandates that compensation payable to a State shall be provisionally calculated and released at the end of every two months during the transition period of 10 years.
  2. The projected nominal growth rate of revenue assumed for a state during the transition period shall be the average for the state over the previous five years.

Options:

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

See

Answer

Ans: d

Explanation:

  • As per provisions in Section 7 of the GST (Compensation to States) Act, 2017 loss of revenue to the States on account of implementation of Goods and Services Tax shall be payable during transition period and compensation payable to a State shall be provisionally calculated and released at the end of every two months during transition period of 5 years.
  • As per Section 4 of the said Act, the financial year 2015-16 has been taken as the base year for calculating compensation amount payable to States for loss of revenue during the transition period. The projected nominal growth rate of revenue assumed for a state during the transition period shall be 14% per annum.
  • As per section 7(c) of the said Act, the total compensation payable in any financial year shall be the difference between the projected revenue for any financial year and the actual revenue collected by a State.
  • A GST Compensation Cess could be charged on the supply of particular commodities and services, and the receipts from said cess shall be deposited to a GST Compensation Fund.

 

Q 3: Which of the following statements are correct?
  1. The Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) would act as the Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).
  2. The CDS will be a part of the Defence Acquisition Council and Defence Planning Committee.

Options:

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

See

Answer

Ans: c

Explanation:

  • The Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), will function as the Principal Military Adviser to the Defence Minister and also as the Permanent Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).
  • The CDS will also be a member of the Defence Acquisition Council chaired by the Defence Minister.
  • The CDS will be a member of the Defence Planning Committee chaired by the NSA.

 

Q 4: Which of the following are incorrectly matched?

a. Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary:      Madhya Pradesh
b. Kuno National park:                     Uttar Pradesh
c. Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary:           Maharashtra
d. Mitilaya Wildlife Sanctuary:       Gujarath

See

Answer

Ans: b

Explanation:

Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary: Madhya Pradesh

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. What are the constitutional provisions related to interstate river water disputes? Discuss the
significance of the recent amendments to the inter-state river water disputes act of 1956.
(10 marks, 150 words)

2. The creation of the post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) has been a long-pending demand
and it calls for a total transformation of the traditional military mindset. Comment. (10
marks, 150 words)

CNA 28 Dec 2019:- Download PDF Here

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