UPSC: PIB Summary and Analysis Dec 30

Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)

  • The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) was announced in 2003 with objectives of correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable/ reliable tertiary healthcare services and also to augment facilities for quality medical education in the country.

PMSSY has two components:

  • Setting up new AIIMS.
  • Upgradation of government medical colleges.

So what should be done?

  • The existing scenario suggests that public healthcare service should ensure three “Es- Expand – Equity – Excellence”.
  • Access to adequate health care would need expansion of tertiary care facilities. Tertiary care should be equitably distributed to different segments of population.
  • The setting up of new facilities will have to address imbalances at three levels- Regional, specialties, and ratio of medical doctors to nurses and other healthcare professionals.

 

 

Bose-Einstein statistics

  • Bose-Einstein statistics, one of two possible ways in which a collection of indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states.
  • The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is characteristic of particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium.
  • The theory of this behaviour was developed (1924–25) by Albert Einstein and the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, who recognized that a collection of identical and indistinguishable particles can be distributed in this way.
  • This is applicable to the identical, indistinguishable particles of zero or integral spin. These particles are called Bosons. The examples of Bosons are helium atoms at low temperature and the photons.

Background

The quantum statistics was first formulated in 1924 by Satyendra Nath Bose in the deduction of Planck’s law of radiation by purely statistical reasoning on the basis of fundamental assumptions that were radically different from those of classical statistics. Einstein in the same year used the same principles in evolving kinetic theory of gasses, as a substitute for classical Boltzmann Statistics. Thus a new quantum statistics, known as Bose-Einstein statistics, came to be accepted.

How is it different from Fermi-Dirac statistics?

  • In 1926, Fermi and Dirac independently modified Bose-Einstein statistics in certain cases, on the basis of additional principle, the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle.
  • In contrast to Fermi-Dirac statistics, the Bose-Einstein statistics apply only to those particles not limited to single occupancy of the same state—that is, particles that do not obey the restriction known as the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
  • This is applicable to the identical, indistinguishable particles of half spin. These particles obey Pauli’s exclusion principle and are called Fermions. The examples of Fermions are electrons, protons, neutrons, etc.