What is an example of primary ecological succession?

The example of primary succession can be explained in the following manner:

  1. A new land formation or exposure of bare rock provides a habitat for the pioneer species to colonize. 
  2. Pioneer species come into the picture when the rock/land has been weathered down and certain plants and lichens that have less soil requirement are established
  3. These pioneer species then help to  further break down the mineral-rich lava into soil
  4. Different species replace the pioneer species. 
  5. With the periodic growth and decay of species, an ever-growing layer of decomposing organic material is set up and soil formation occurs. 
  6. This process is repeated.

Further Readings – 

  1. Types of Volcanoes, Landforms 
  2. Largest Volcanoes In The World

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