Environment And Ecology Notes For UPSC - Environment Notes For IAS Preparation


Find below the pdfs of UPSC notes on Environment and Ecology for the Civil Services Exam. Environment and related topics are a part of both UPSC Prelims Syllabus and the UPSC Mains Syllabus (GS III). At times, Environment related topics also come in IAS Mains Essay paper.

Focus areas for UPSC prelims and IAS mains:

  1. Environmental Ecology
  2. Biodiversity
  3. Climate Change
  4. Institutions
  5. Acts/Laws/Policies related to Environment

Preparing less concrete topics like above can pose a challenge to IAS aspirants. Ideally, the UPSC preparation strategy should comprise reading NCERTs and actively tracking current affairs. Also, going through the UPSC previous year question papers should be a part of the preparation.

These UPSC notes on Environment and related topics are prepared by subject matter experts keeping the Civil Services exam in mind. For a holistic approach to IAS preparation, check out the links at the bottom of the article.

Environment and Ecology Notes for UPSC Prelims exam and IAS Mains

Topics PDF
  • Concept of System
  • Understanding the Ecosystem
  • Energy Cycle
  • Important Terms
  • Biodiversity
    • Genetic Diversity
    • Species Diversity
    • Ecosystem Diversity
    • Value of Biodiversity
    • List of modern drugs derived from Plant sources
    • Endemic and Exotic species
  • Endemic Species and their regions
  • Conservation of Biodiversity
    • In-situ
    • Ex-situ
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Statutory Acts/Bodies
  • International Conferences/Protocols
  • Climate Change -a brief


  • Climate Change
    • Implications for India
    • Response to Climate Change
    • National Action Plan on Climate Change
  • Pollution
    • Categories
    • Causes
    • Types of Particulates
    • International Conventions

How to best use these Environment notes for UPSC preparation?

  • Aspirants often have the Environment related relevant information but presenting all the information in the IAS exam becomes a challenge, especially in the UPSC mains.
  • Make a habit of listing current affairs along with static parts of the UPSC notes.
  • If one goes through the UPSC previous year question papers, one can see the nature of questions are changing. While the emphasis on basis concepts and static part is still there, the dynamic aspects are getting more weightage.

Few Environment questions from UPSC previous year question papers are given below.

Q.1 Consider the following pairs:

Terms sometimes seen in the news Their origin

  1. Annex- I Countries: Cartagena Protocol
  2. Certified Emissions Reductions: Nagoya Protocol
  3. Clean Development Mechanism: Kyoto Protocol

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Ans. C


Q 2 Which of the following best describes/describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?

  1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets there by implementing the ‘green accounting’
  2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
  3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Ans. C


Q.3 What is/are the unique about the ‘Kharai Camel’ a breed found in India

  1. It is capable of swimming up three kilometers in seawater
  2. Its survives by grazing on mangroves
  3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated

Select the correct answers using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans. A


Q.4 What is ‘greenhouse gas protocol ‘?

  1. it is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions
  2. it is an initiative of the united nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies
  3. it is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the united nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022
  4. it is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the world bank

Ans. A

Q.5 With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development.
  2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans. A


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