NCERT Notes: Geography- Loss of biodiversity

Subject: Geography 
Category: The Fundamentals of Physical Geography 
Topic: NCERT Notes: Geography- Loss of biodiversity

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Loss of biodiversity.

Loss of biodiversity
  • About three-fourth of the human population resides in the Tropical regions which occupy only about one-fourth of the total area of the world.
  • The tropical rain forests contain 50 percent of the species on the earth.
  • The excessive population has resulted in the rampant exploitation of resources and deforestation.
  • The destruction of the Tropical regions has resulted in the loss of natural habitats which is catastrophic for the whole biosphere.
  • Natural calamities like forest fires, droughts, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, etc. cause damage to both flora and fauna of the earth.
  • Pesticides and other pollutants like toxic heavy metals and hydrocarbons destroy the feeble and sensitive species.
  • Loss of biodiversity in an area may cause
    • Decline in plant production
    • Lowered resistance to environmental perturbations
    • Increased variability in definite ecosystem developments such as water use, plant productivity, and disease cycles and pests.
IUCN
  • The IUCN issues data about endangered species universally as the Red List of threatened species.
  • The organization has categorized the threatened species of plants and animals into three categories for the purpose of their conservation.
    • Endangered Species
    • Vulnerable Species
    • Rare Species

Read more | IUCN Red List of India 2016

Endangered Species
  • It comprises those species which are in danger of extinction.
Vulnerable Species
  • This comprises the species which are probable to be in danger of extinction in near the future if the factors threatening to their extinction continue.
  • Survival of these species is not guaranteed as their population has decreased greatly.
Rare Species
  • The population of these species is very small in the world and they are restricted to limited areas or thinly scattered over a wider area.

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