Biodiversity Loss - NCERT Notes for UPSC

Biodiversity Loss is termed as a decrease in biological diversity within a species, ecosystems, places and the earth as a whole. If there is a loss of a species in a given area or loss in the number and genetic variability of any area, it is often described as a loss in Biodiversity.

The topic is covered in the environment and ecology section of the Mains GS 3 of the IAS Exam.

Aspirants can cover the topics mentioned in the UPSC Syllabus by following the below-mentioned links:

Loss of Biodiversity Notes:- Download PDF Here

Loss of Biodiversity

  • About three-fourth of the human population resides in the Tropical regions which occupy only about one-fourth of the total area of the world.
  • The tropical rain forests contain 50 percent of the species on the earth.
  • The excessive population is one of the causes that have lead to biodiversity loss that has resulted in the rampant exploitation of resources and deforestation.
  • The destruction of the Tropical regions has resulted in the loss of natural habitats which is catastrophic for the whole biosphere.
  • Natural calamities like forest fires, droughts, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, etc. cause damage to both flora and fauna of the earth.
  • Pesticides and other pollutants like toxic heavy metals and hydrocarbons destroy the feeble and sensitive species.
  • Loss of biodiversity in an area may cause
    • Decline in plant production
    • Lowered resistance to environmental perturbations
    • Increased variability in definite ecosystem developments such as water use, plant productivity, and disease cycles and pests.

Related Articles:

Biodiversity Conservation Biodiversity Hotspots
Importance of Biodiversity Causes of Biodiversity Loss


  • The IUCN issues data about endangered species universally as the Red List of threatened species.
  • IUCN has a membership  of over 16000 scientists and 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries in a voluntary basis.
  • It is headquartered in Gland, Switzerland.
  • IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity.
  • The organization has categorized the threatened species of plants and animals into three categories for the purpose of their conservation.
    • Endangered Species
    • Vulnerable Species
    • Rare Species

Read more | IUCN Red List of India

Biodiversity Loss – Endangered Species

  • It comprises those species which are in danger of extinction.

Biodiversity Loss – Vulnerable Species

  • This comprises the species which are probable to be in danger of extinction in near the future if the factors threatening to their extinction continue.
  • Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened.
  • Survival of these species is not guaranteed as their population has decreased greatly.

Biodiversity Loss – Rare Species

  • The population of these species is very small in the world and they are restricted to limited areas or thinly scattered over a wider area.
  • Rarity rests on a specific species being represented by a small number of organisms worldwide, usually fewer than 10,000.
  • A species may be endangered or vulnerable, but not considered rare if it has a large, dispersed population.
  • A species may be endangered or vulnerable, but not considered rare if it has a large, dispersed population.

Loss of Biodiversity Notes:- Download PDF Here

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