NCERT Notes: Conservation Of Biodiversity [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Conservation of biodiversity for IAS exam environment syllabus.

Biodiversity UPSC Notes

Conservation of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity is important for human existence.
  • All forms of life are so closely interlinked that disturbance in one gives rise to imbalance in the others.
  • As the problem of loss of biodiversity tends to continue, the need of the hour is to educate people to adopt environment-friendly practices and reorient their activities in a way that the development is harmonious with other life forms.
  • The critical problem is not only the conservation of species nor the habitat but the extension of the process of conservation.
  • There is an increasing awareness of the fact that such conservation with sustainable use is possible only with the participation and cooperation of local groups and individuals.

Development of institutional structures
  • To create awareness and ensure participation and cooperation, development of institutional structures at local levels is essential.

Convention on Biodiversity
  • The Government of India signed the Convention on Biodiversity at the Earth Summit.
  • The Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992.
  • Along with India, 155 other nations have also signed this.

World Conservation Strategy
  • The world conservation strategy has suggested the following steps for biodiversity conservation:
    • Efforts should be made to preserve the species that are endangered.
    • Prevention of extinction needs proper management and planning.
    • Varieties of forage plants, livestock, food crops, timber trees, animals and their wild lineages should be preserved.
  • Every country should recognize habitats of wild flora and fauna, and ensure their protection.
  • Habitats where species breed, feed, rest and nurture their young should be maintained and protected.
  • International trade in animals and wild plants should be regulated.

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
  • To protect, preserve and propagate the diversity of species within natural boundaries, the Government of India passed the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Under this act only, the sanctuaries and national parks were established and biosphere reserves declared.

Megadiversity
  • There are some countries which are situated in the tropical region; they possess a large number of species diversity in the World. They are called mega diversity centres.
  • There are 12 such countries, namely Mexico, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia in which these centres are located.

Hot spots
  • Hotspots are defined according to the vegetation.
  • Plants are vital as they determine the primary productivity of an ecosystem.
  • Most of the hotspots depend on species-rich ecosystems for food, firewood, cropland, and revenue from timber.

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