Indian Polity is an important subject of UPSC civil services exam. One of the most important topics in UPSC Polity is the articles in Indian Constitution. Questions related to important articles have been frequently asked in IAS Exam. Articles of the Indian Constitution should be well-read for both UPSC Prelims and Mains GS-II papers.
In this article, we have also given magic number tricks and mnemonic devices to remember the important articles in the Indian Constitution.
If we look at the previous year’s UPSC question papers, we can come across at least one question related to the constitution of India. Hence, knowing the importance of the Constitution of India in the IAS exam is essential. This article will mention the must-know articles of our Indian Constitution.
List of Important Articles in Indian Constitution:- Download PDF Here
Which are the Most Important Articles of the Constitution?
There are 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices with 100 amendments in the Indian Constitution. However, not all of them are important for prelims and UPSC Mains examination. The important articles in Indian Constitution for civil services examination are given in the table below:
|Important Articles of Indian Constitution||Importance of Constitutional Articles|
|Article 12-35||Fundamental Rights|
|Article 36-50||Directive Principles of State Policy|
|Article 51A||Fundamental Duties|
|Article 80||Number of Seats in Rajya Sabha|
|Article 243-243 (o)||Panchayati Raj Institutions|
|Article 343||Hindi as Official Language|
|Article 356||Imposition of President’s Rule|
|Article 370||Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir|
|Article 395||Repeals Indian Independence Act and Government of India Act 1919|
List of Important Articles of Indian Constitution
The Constitution of India is regarded as the supreme law of the land in India. It is an existing document and an instrument that makes the government system work. It draws a structure that defines fundamental political principles, forms the framework, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and lays out fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930.
The important articles are:
- Article 1 – Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
- Article 12 – Definition of the state.
- Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Initially, the constitution of India provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property U/A 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. A legal right U/A 300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution.
- Article 14 – Equality before the law.
- Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
- Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
- Article 18 – Abolition of titles
- Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:
- Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
- Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
- Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor.
- Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children (Under the age of 14) in factories and mines.
- Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
- Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.
- Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
- Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
- Article 36 – Definition
- Article 37– Application of DPSP (Directive Principal of States Policy)
- Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40 – Organization of village panchayat
- Article 41 – Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
- Article 43A – Participation of workers in management of industries.
- Article 44 – Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only)
- Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
- Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from executive.
- Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.
Initially, it had 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
- Article 52 – The President of India
- Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
- Article 54 – Election of President
- Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
- Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
- Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States
- Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
- Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
- Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advice President
- Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
- Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
- Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
- Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
- Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
- Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
- Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills
- Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
- Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
- Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
- Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
- Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
- Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
- Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
- Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
- Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
- Article 129 – Supreme Court to be court of Record
- Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
- Article 136 – Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court
- Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
- Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts
- Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India
- Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG
- Article 153 – Governors of State
- Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
- Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
- Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
- Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
- Article 214 – High Courts for states
- Article 215 – High Courts to be court of record
- Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
- Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
- Article 235 – Control over Sub–ordinate Courts
- Article 243A – Gram Sabha
- Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats
- Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280 – Finance Commission
- Article 300 A – Right to property
- Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse
- Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
- Article 312 – All– India–Service
- Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and for the states
- Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission
- Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals
- Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
- Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
- Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage
- Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
- Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes
- Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
- Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
- Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts
- Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages
- Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
- Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360 – Financial Emergency
- Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors
- Article 368 – Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution
- Article 370 – Special provision of J&K
- Article 371 A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region
- Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India
Candidates who are preparing for UPSC 2020 should focus on important articles of Indian Constitution as many questions are expected from this section of UPSC Polity.
The constitution of India is created by a constituent assembly and adopted by its people with a declaration in the preamble to the constitution; hence it divulges constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy and Parliament cannot override the constitution.
How to Remember Articles of Indian Constitution?
Memorizing all 448 articles of the Indian Constitution and reproducing them in the civil services exam is not an easy task. It is difficult to learn everything. Below are a few tips to remember the important articles of the Indian Constitution:
Through Magic Numbers-
|Articles Related to Emergency Provisions|
|Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency.||Add the magic number ‘4’||Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States|
|Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States||Article 360: Financial Emergency|
|Article for Centre||Add the magic number 90||Corresponding article for State|
|Article 112: Annual financial statement for Union||Article 202: Annual financial statement for State|
|Article 113: Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates||Article 203: Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates|
|Article 114: Appropriation Bills||Article 204: Appropriation Bills|
|Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants||Article 205: Supplementary, additional or excess grants|
|Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants||Article 206: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants|
|Article 117: Special provisions as to financial Bills||Article 207: Special provisions as to financial Bills|
|Article 118: Rules of procedure||Article 208: Rules of procedure|
|Article 119: Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business||Article 209: Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business|
|Article 120: Language to be used in Parliament.||Article 210: Language to be used in Legislature|
|Article 121: Restriction on discussion in Parliament||Article 211: Restriction on discussion in the Legislature|
|Article 122: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament||Article 212: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Legislature|
|Article 123: Power of President to promulgate Ordinances||Article 213: Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances|
|Article 124: Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court||Article 214: High Courts for States|
Article for Centre
|Add the magic number ‘89’||
Corresponding article for State
|Article 72: Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases||Article 161: Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases|
|Article 74: Council of Ministers to aid and advice President.||Article 163: Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor|
|Article 75: Other provisions as to Ministers||Article: 164: Other provisions as to Ministers|
|Article 76: Attorney General for India||Article 165: Advocate General for the State|
|Article 77: Conduct of business of the Government of India||Article 166: Conduct of business of the Government of a State|
|Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.||Article 167: Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.|
|Article 79: Constitution of Parliament||Article 168: Constitution of Legislatures in States|
|Article 85: Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution||Article 174: Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution|
|Article 86: Right of President to address and send messages to Houses||Article 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses|
|Article 88: Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses||Article 177: Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses|
|Article 102: Disqualifications for membership||Article 192: Disqualifications for membership|
|Article 105: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof||Article 194: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof|
|Article 100: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.||Article 189: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum|
|Article 111: Assent to Bills (President)||Article 200: Assent to Bills (Governor)|
|Article 110: Definition of “Money Bills”.||Article 199: Definition of “Money Bills” in State Legislature|
This is an age-old trick used to memorize a lot of content. Make a string of words or a sentence using key letters from the articles. This way you will be able to recall them faster and with minimum effort. Make your own mnemonics in order to be able to memorize vast quantities of data. For e.g. :
U Can Fix Deposit From United States Using Pre Mature Special Rate.
U – Union
C – Citizenship
F – Fundamental rights
D – Directive Principles
F – Fundamental Duties
U – Union
S – States
U – Union Territories
P – Panchayat
M – Municipality
S – Scheduled
R– Relation between Union and State
Polly Has Certified ManneQuins
Qu– Quo Warranto