Articles of the Indian Constitution must be known to the UPSC Exam aspirants. There are 448 articles in the Indian Constitution (originally 395 articles were there). Each set of articles covers important parts of the Constitution including, Legislatures, Executive, Schedules, Parts of Indian Constitution, Constitutional Bodies, Statutory Bodies, Fundamental Rights, and more.
This article will provide you with the list of those articles in Indian Constitution that are important for the Indian Polity (GS-II) syllabus of the IAS Exam.
|The topic, ‘Articles in Indian Constitution’ is important for Prelims and UPSC Mains GS II preparation. Read similar important topics for CSE preparation below:|
Table of Contents:
How many articles are there in the Indian Constitution?
There are 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices with more than 100 amendments in the Indian Constitution. Not every article of the Indian Constitution is a must to know for UPSC Exams. Hence, all those articles in the Indian Constitution that are important from the IAS exam perspective are given below:
There are 25 parts of the Indian Constitution. They are mentioned in the table below:
Parts of the Indian Constitution
|Subject Mentioned in the Part||Articles in Indian Constitution
|Part I||Union & Its Territory||Article 1-4|
|Part II||Citizenship||Article 5-11|
|Part III||Fundamental Rights||Article 12-35|
|Part IV||Directive Principles||Article 36-51|
|Part IV A||Fundamental Duties||Article 51A|
|Part V||The Union||Article 52-151|
|Part VI||The States||Article 152-237|
|Part VII||Note: 7th Amendment Act, 1956 repealed Part 7||–|
|Part VIII||The Union Territories||Article 239-242|
|Part IX||The Panchayats||Article 243-243O|
|Part IX A||The Municipalities||Article 243P-243ZG|
|Part IX B||Co-operative Societies||Article 243ZH-243ZT|
|Part X||Scheduled and Tribal Areas||Article 244-244A|
|Part XI||Relation between Union & States||Article 245-263|
|Part XII||Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits||Article 264-300A|
|Part XIII||Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territory of India||Article 301-307|
|Part XIV||Services under the Union and States||Article 308-323|
|Part XIV A||Tribunals||Article 323A-323B|
|Part XV||Elections||Article 324-329A|
|Part XVI||Special Provisions relating to certain classes||Article 330-342|
|Part XVII||Official Languages||Article 343-351|
|Part XVIII||Emergency Provisions||Article 352-360|
|Part XIX||Miscellaneous||Article 361-367|
|Part XX||Amendment of the Constitution||Article 368|
|Part XXI||Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions||Article 369-392|
|Part XXII||Short title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in
Hindi and Repeals
- Article 1 – Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
- Article 12 – Definition of the state.
- Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Initially, the Constitution of India provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property U/A 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. A legal right U/A 300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution.
- Article 14 – Equality before the law.
- Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
- Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
- Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
- Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:
a – Freedom of speech and expression.
b – Freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms.
c – Freedom to form associations or unions.
d – Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
e – Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
f – Omitted
g – Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
- Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
- Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
- Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
- Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children (Under the age of 14) in factories and mines.
- Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
- Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Cultural and Educational Rights: Article 29 and Article 30
- Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Right to Constitutional Remedies: Article 32
- Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
- Article 36 – Definition
- Article 37– Application of DPSP (Read about Directive Principles of States Policy in the linked article)
- Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40 – Organization of a village panchayat
- Article 41 – Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for workers.
- Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries.
- Article 44 – Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only)
- Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
- Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.
There are 11 fundamental duties. 42nd amendment act 1976 added 10 fundamental duties. 86th amendment act 2002 added one more to the list.
- Article 52 – The President of India
- Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
- Article 54 – Election of President
- Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
- Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
- Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States
- Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
- Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
- Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President
- Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
- Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
- Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
- Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
- Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
- Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
- Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills
- Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
- Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
- Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
- Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
- Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
- Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
- Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
- Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
- Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
- Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record
- Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
- Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
- Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
- Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court of India binding on all the courts
- Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India
- Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG
- Article 153 – Governors of State
- Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
- Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
- Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
- Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
- Article 214 – High Courts for states
- Article 215 – High Courts to be a court of record
- Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
- Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
- Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts
Read about High Courts in India and Types of Writs in the linked articles below:
|High Courts in India||Types of Writs|
- Article 243A – Gram Sabha
- Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats (Read about Panchayati Raj in the linked article.)
- Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280 – Finance Commission
- Article 300 A – Right to property
Read about Types of Funds in India and the Finance Commission of India in the linked articles below:
|Types of Funds in India||Finance Commission of India|
- Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse
- Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
- Article 312 – All– India–Service
- Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and for the states (Know all about PSC Exams in the linked article.)
- Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission
- Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals
- Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
- Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
- Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage
- Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
- Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes
- Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
- Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
- Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts
- Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages
- Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
- Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360 – Financial Emergency (Read more about Article 356 in the linked article.
- Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors
- Article 368 – Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution
- Article 370 – Temporary Provision for the erstwhile State of J&K (diluted on August 5 & 6, 2019).
- Article 371 A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region
- Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India
Also, refer to | Topic-Wise GS 2 Questions from UPSC Mains
Schedules of the Indian Constitution and Important Articles
There are 12 Schedules in the Indian Constitution. These, along with the Indian articles of the Constitution are mentioned below:
|Schedules of Indian Constitution||Indian Constitution Articles|
|First Schedule||Article 1 and Article 4|
|Fourth Schedule||Article 4 and Article 80|
|Fifth Schedule||Article 244|
|Sixth Schedule||Article 244 and Article 275|
|Seventh Schedule||Article 246|
|Eighth Schedule||Article 344 and Article 351|
|Ninth Schedule||Article 31-B|
|Tenth Schedule||Article 102 and Article 191|
|Eleventh Schedule||Article 243-G|
|Twelfth Schedule||Article 243-W|
Aspirants can read more about the 12 Schedules of the Indian Constitution from the linked article.
List of other Important Articles in the Indian Constitution
Knowing these Indian Constitution articles will help aspirants score well in Polity section. However, not all of them are important for prelims and UPSC Mains examination. The important articles in the Indian Constitution for civil services examination are given in the table below:
|Important Articles of the Indian Constitution||Importance of Indian Articles|
|Article 12-35||Fundamental Rights|
|Article 36-50||Directive Principles of State Policy|
|Article 51A||Fundamental Duties|
|Article 80||Number of Seats in Rajya Sabha|
|Article 243-243 (o)||Panchayati Raj Institutions|
|Article 343||Hindi as Official Language|
|Article 356||Imposition of President’s Rule|
|Article 370||Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir|
|Article 395||Repeals Indian Independence Act and Government of India Act 1919|
The Constitution of India is created by a constituent assembly and adopted by its people with a declaration in the preamble to the constitution; hence it divulges constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy and Parliament cannot override the constitution.
How to remember important articles in the Indian Constitution for UPSC
Memorizing all 448 articles of the Indian Constitution and reproducing them in the civil services exam is not an easy task. It is difficult to learn everything. Below are a few tips to remember the important articles of the Indian Constitution:
|Articles Related to Emergency Provisions|
|Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency.||Add the magic number ‘4’||Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States|
|Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States||Article 360: Financial Emergency|
|Article for Centre||Add the magic number 90||Corresponding Article for State|
|Article 112: Annual financial statement for Union||Article 202: Annual financial statement for State|
|Article 113: Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates||Article 203: Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates|
|Article 114: Appropriation Bills||Article 204: Appropriation Bills|
|Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants||Article 205: Supplementary, additional or excess grants|
|Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants||Article 206: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants|
|Article 117: Special provisions as to financial Bills||Article 207: Special provisions as to financial Bills|
|Article 118: Rules of procedure||Article 208: Rules of procedure|
|Article 119: Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business||Article 209: Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business|
|Article 120: Language to be used in Parliament.||Article 210: Language to be used in Legislature|
|Article 121: Restriction on discussion in Parliament||Article 211: Restriction on discussion in the Legislature|
|Article 122: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament||Article 212: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Legislature|
|Article 123: Power of President to promulgate Ordinances||Article 213: Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances|
|Article 124: Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court||Article 214: High Courts for States|
Article for Centre
|Add the magic number ‘89’||
Corresponding article for State
|Article 72: Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases||Article 161: Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases|
|Article 74: Council of Ministers to aid and advice President.||Article 163: Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor|
|Article 75: Other provisions as to Ministers||Article: 164: Other provisions as to Ministers|
|Article 76: Attorney General for India||Article 165: Advocate General for the State|
|Article 77: Conduct of business of the Government of India||Article 166: Conduct of business of the Government of a State|
|Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.||Article 167: Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.|
|Article 79: Constitution of Parliament||Article 168: Constitution of Legislatures in States|
|Article 85: Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution||Article 174: Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution|
|Article 86: Right of President to address and send messages to Houses||Article 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses|
|Article 88: Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses||Article 177: Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses|
|Article 102: Disqualifications for membership||Article 192: Disqualifications for membership|
|Article 105: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof||Article 194: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof|
|Article 100: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum||Article 189: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum|
|Article 111: Assent to Bills (President)||Article 200: Assent to Bills (Governor)|
|Article 110: Definition of Money Bills||Article 199: Definition of “Money Bills” in State Legislature|
Remember significant articles in Indian Constitution through Mnemonics-
This is an age-old trick used to memorize a lot of content. Make a string of words or a sentence using key letters from the articles. This way you will be able to recall them faster and with minimum effort. Make your own mnemonics in order to be able to memorize vast quantities of data. For e.g. :
|U Can Fix Deposit From United States Using Pre Mature Special Rate.|
U – Union
C – Citizenship
F – Fundamental rights
D – Directive Principles
F – Fundamental Duties
U – Union
S – States
U – Union Territories
P – Panchayat
M – Municipality
S – Scheduled
R– Relation between Union and State
|Polly Has Certified ManneQuins|
Qu– Quo Warranto
If we look at the previous year’s UPSC question papers, we can come across at least one question related to the Constitution of India. Hence, knowing the importance of the Constitution of India in the IAS exam is essential. This article will mention the must-know articles of our Indian Constitution.
Indian Constitution Articles are a very important part of the Indian Polity. Indian Polity is an important subject in UPSC Mains GS 2. Various questions are targeted at this topic and many others in GS-II and also in Prelims. Candidates can get the UPSC Mains GS 2 Strategy and Syllabus for the trend analysis of other subjects too.