A Glance at the important articles of Constitution of India for UPSC Exam

Important articles of Indian Constitution for UPSC

constitution_of_india The Constitution of India is regarded as the supreme law of the land in India. It is an existing document and an instrument that makes the government system work. It draws a structure that defines fundamental political principles, forms the framework, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and lays out fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens.   The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution.   The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930.  

If we look at the previous year’s UPSC question papers, we can come across at least one question related to the constitution of India.   Hence, knowing the importance of the Constitution of India in the IAS exam perspective is essential, so let us take a look at the must know articles of our Indian Constitution.

Indian constitution articles

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union.
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state.
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.

  Part 2: Article 5 to 11

  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

  Part 3: Article 12 to 35

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state.
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

  Let us take a look at some important fundamental rights. Fundamental Rights Initially, the constitution of India provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property U/A 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.   A legal right U/A 300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution. Right to Equality

  • Article 14 – Equality before the law.
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles

  Right to Freedom

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:six rights
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against exploitation

  • Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor.
  • Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14.

Right to freedom of Religion

  • Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
  • Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
  • Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
  • Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.

Cultural and Educational Rights

  • Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
  • Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
  • Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

  Part 4: Directive Principal of States Policy

  • Article 36 – Definition
  • Article 37– Application of DPSP (Directive Principal of States Policy)
  • Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
  • Article 40 – Organization of village panchayat
  • Article 41 – Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
  • Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
  • Article 43A – Participation of workers in management of industries.
  • Article 44 – Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only)
  • Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
  • Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
  • Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
  • Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
  • Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from executive.
  • Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.

  Part 4A-Fundamental Duties Initially it had 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.   Part 5: Union Article

  • Article 52 – The President of India
  • Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
  • Article 54 – Election of President
  • Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
  • Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
  • Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States
  • Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
  • Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
  • Article 74 – Council of minister to aid and advice President
  • Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
  • Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
  • Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
  • Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
  • Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
  • Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills
  • Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
  • Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
  • Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
  • Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be court of Record
  • Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
  • Article 136 – Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court
  • Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
  • Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India
  • Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG

  Part 6: States Article

  • Article 153 – Governors of State
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
  • Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
  • Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
  • Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be court of record
  • Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
  • Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
  • Article 235 – Control over Sub–ordinate Courts

  Part 7: Repealed   Part 8: Union Territories   Part 9-Panchayats

  • Article 243A – Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats

  Part 9A   Part 10 - Scheduled and tribal areas   Part 11- Centre-state relation   Part 12 – Finance, Properties, Contracts, and Suits: Article 264 to Article 300 A

  • Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
  • Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
  • Article 280 – Finance Commission
  • Article 300 A – Right to property

  Part 13 – Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the territories of India: Article 301 to Article 307

  • Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse
  • Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.

  Part 14 – Services under Centre and State: Article 308 to Article 323

  • Article 312 – All– India–Service
  • Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and for the states
  • Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission

  Part 14A – Tribunals: Article 323 A to Article 323 B

  • Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals

  Part 15 – Elections: Article 324 to Article 329

  • Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
  • Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
  • Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage

  Part 16 – Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc: Article 330 to Article 342

  • Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
  • Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes

  Part 17 – Official Language: Article 343 to Article 351

  • Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
  • Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
  • Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts
  • Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages

  Part 18 – Emergency: Article 352 to Article 360

  • Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
  • Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
  • Article 360 – Financial Emergency

  Part 19 – Miscellaneous: Article 361 to Article 367

  • Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors

  Part 20 – Amendment of Constitution: Article 368

  • Article 368 Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution

  Part 21 – Special, Transitional, and Temporary Provisions: Article 369 to Article 392

  • Article 370 – Special provision of J&K
  • Article 371 A –  Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region

  Part 22 – Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals: Article 392 to Article 395

  • Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India

  The constitution of India is created by a constituent assembly and adopted by its people with a declaration in the preamble to the constitution; hence it divulges constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy and Parliament cannot override the constitution.

Download Important Articles of Indian Constitution for UPSC PDF.

 

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