CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude Test) - UPSC Prelims Paper 2 Syllabus & Strategy

The full form of CSAT is the Civil Services Aptitude Test. It was introduced in the year 2011 as a part of the UPSC Civil Services Exam (Preliminary) to test the analytical skills, reasoning ability and aptitude of IAS aspirants.

In this comprehensive guide to the CSAT exam, we have covered the following topics:

  1. CSAT
  2. CSAT Exam Pattern And CSAT Syllabus 2023
  3. Download CSAT Question Papers (2014-2020)
  4. CSAT Trend Analysis (2011 – 2019)

While the controversy over the introduction of CSAT, officially known as the General Studies Paper-II, in UPSC exam still continues, as per latest news, the Civil Services Aptitude Test will continue to be a part of the UPSC Prelims.

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Latest Update about CSAT Exam 2023

CSAT 2023 was held on 28th May 2023. The previous edition of the IAS prelims exam was held on 5th June 2022 and candidates can download the UPSC prelims paper 2 PDF given below for their reference:

UPSC Prelims 2022: CSAT paper II (Series D): Download here

Take your UPSC Prelims preparation a notch higher and complement it with the links given below:


  • CSAT stands for Civil Services Aptitude Test. It is a part of the UPSC Prelims (Civil Services Exam – Preliminary). However, the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) refers to the exam as General Studies (GS) Paper – II.
  • Hence, in the context of UPSC Prelims, GS Paper II refers to the CSAT while in context of UPSC Mains, GS Paper II is the Polity (etc.) paper.
  • Candidates are advised to understand the complete UPSC CSE Syllabus and the syllabus of CSAT in UPSC Prelims to avoid confusion.

What is Prelims exam in IAS?

The IAS Prelims/UPSC Prelims exam is the first stage of the Union Public Service Commission Civil Services Examination (CSE).

The official notification for UPSC 2023 has been released on 1st February 2023 and it has the detailed and updated CSAT syllabus. candidates can have a look at the IAS prelims GS paper 1 and 2 syllabi discussed below, as per the UPSC notification of 2023.

UPSC Prelims Syllabus IAS Exam 2023

The UPSC CSE comprises three stages:

  1. Preliminary Exam – 2 objective type papers
  2. UPSC Mains – 9 theory papers
  3. IAS Interview

Check your eligibility for CSAT (UPSC Eligibility Criteria).

The two papers in the UPSC Prelims are:

  1. General Studies Paper – I
  2. General Studies Paper-II or CSAT

Refer to the UPSC Prelims Syllabus for a detailed analysis.

CSAT Exam Pattern:

CSAT or Civil Services Aptitude Test was introduced in 2011 to test candidates’ analytical skills. It is the second paper in the UPSC Prelims. Officially, it is known as General Studies Paper-II.

The CSAT exam pattern for UPSC:

  • Number of questions: 80 Objective-Type (MCQ) questions
  • Negative Marking: Yes (1/3rd of the maximum marks for the question)
  • Time: 2 hours
  • Type of Exam: Offline exam
  • Date of CSAT exam: 10th October 2021
  • Language of CSAT exam paper: English/Hindi
  • Maximum Marks: 200
  • CSAT qualifying marks: 66 marks (33% qualifying criteria)

Candidates have to apply for the examination through the UPSC Online Application 2021, details of which are mentioned in the linked article.

CSAT Syllabus – GS Paper II – UPSC Prelims 2023

The CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude Test) syllabus for UPSC 2023 shall comprise the following broad categories:

  1. Comprehension
  2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  4. Decision-making and problem-solving
  5. General mental ability
  6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

Best books for CSAT (GS Paper II):

The books recommended by IAS toppers for acing the UPSC Prelims – CSAT (GS Paper II) are given below:

  1. CSAT Paper – 2 Manual by TMH
  2. Analytical Reasoning – M. K. Pandey
  3. Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning – R. S. Aggarwal

However, since the CSAT exam in UPSC CSE was made qualifying in 2015, candidates need to score only 33% to qualify for Mains, provided they score above the cut off in UPSC Prelims – GS Paper I. Aspirants can practice CSAT Questions while visiting the linked article.

The qualifying nature and the level X standard questions in CSAT mean that serious candidates do not need to memorise or go through multiple books.

First, all candidates should try to solve UPSC previous year question papers for CSAT and then decide on a preparation strategy.

CSAT marking scheme:

  • The CSAT paper consists of 80 questions which the candidate has to finish in the allotted time of 2 hours only.
  • Each question carries 2.5 marks in the CSAT paper making the total to 200 marks.
  • Candidates must remember that there is negative marking in the CSAT paper.
  • For every incorrect answer, the candidate is penalised 1/3rd of the total marks allotted to that question, i.e., 0.83 marks will be cut.
  • If a question is not attempted, i.e., the candidate leaves it blank on the OMR sheet, no marks will be cut for that question.

CSAT strategy for IAS Prelims 2023:

  • Candidates should not ignore the CSAT paper thinking it is only a qualifying paper.
  • If candidates feel that their general English comprehension and basic math skills are not up to the mark, they should spend a decent amount of time on the CSAT paper.
  • This holds true especially for aspirants from the humanities and arts background who have not been in touch with such subjects ever since their school days.
  • For those candidates who are at ease with the type of questions asked in the CSAT paper, practising the adequate number of UPSC previous years’ question papers for CSAT will do.
  • But if candidates do not practice the CSAT question papers, it would be very difficult to complete the 80 questions in the prescribed time limit of two hours.
  • Remember, candidates should score at least 66 marks. If they do not qualify, even very high marks in the GS paper I will not help them clear the IAS prelims stage.
  • For candidates to increase their speed in solving math questions in the CSAT paper, they can take help from certain well-used maths tricks. Refer to this article  Maths Tricks to Break the CSAT Bricks for the same.
  • Questions from data interpretation, logical reasoning, etc. are generally easy but if the candidate is unfamiliar with them, answering them can be a tricky affair. This is where practice becomes essential.
  • Also, some of the CSAT questions are lengthy and rather time-consuming. It becomes doubly important for candidates to practise mock test papers or enrol for a reliable CSAT test series.

For all your IAS preparation needs, check the linked page.

CSAT Previous Year Question Papers (2014-2022):

Download the free PDFs of UPSC previous year question papers for CSAT (UPSC Prelims – GS Paper II) from the links below.

Year Download Link For CSAT Paper

UPSC Prelims 2022 – CSAT


UPSC Prelims 2021 – CSAT


UPSC Prelims 2020 – CSAT


UPSC Prelims 2019 – CSAT

2018 UPSC Prelims 2018 – CSAT
2017 UPSC Prelims 2017 – CSAT
2016 UPSC Prelims 2016 – CSAT
2015 UPSC Prelims 2015 – CSAT
2014 UPSC Prelims 2014 – CSAT

Try to solve the previous years’ CSAT papers in the stipulated time limit to simulate the exam conditions.

CSAT Trend Analysis 2011-2020

We have categorised the questions as per the topics in the UPSC syllabus for CSAT in the table below.

Year\Topics Math & Basic numeracy Logical & Analytical reasoning Reading comprehension Decision making Data Interpretation
2011 11 17 39 8 5
2012 3 28 40 9 0
2013 11 21 33 6 9
2014 20 23 31 0 6
2015 30 18 30 0 2
2016 31 21 28 0 0
2017 28 22 30 0 0
2018 18 22 26 0 14
2019 32 18 30 0 0
2020 42 12 26 0 0


CSAT Trend Analysis 2011 - 2020

CSAT in UPSC Prelims: a brief timeline

  • Prior to 2011, the pattern of the UPSC Prelims was as per the Kothari Committee recommendations in 1979.
  • Back then, the UPSC Prelims comprised two papers:
    • GS – 150 marks
    • Paper II – on one of 23 optional subjects – 300 marks
  • In 2010-2011, the UPSC revamped the Preliminary stage of the Civil Services Exam. There are still two papers. However, both papers are now worth 200 marks.
  • The GS Paper II in UPSC Prelims became a test to gauge IAS aspirants’ analytical abilities. Commonly, the GS Paper II is referred to as the CSAT ( Civil Services Aptitude Test).
  • Upon its introduction, the CSAT paper was counted similar to GS Paper I in UPSC Prelims.
  • However, there was widespread controversy as candidates, primarily from rural backgrounds, alleged that the CSAT paper is unfairly hampering their chance of qualifying the UPSC exam.
  • Hence, in August 2014, the Central Govt announced that the marks in CSAT will not be counted and it became only a qualifying paper (33% qualifying criteria) from 2015 onwards. The 2011 candidates were also given a second chance.
  • Since 2015, the pattern of CSAT in UPSC Prelims has remained the same.

UPSC Prelims Paper 2 (CSAT) Practice Questions:

Q1. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a bus is 54 kmph and including stoppages, it is 45 kmph. For how many minutes does the bus stop per hour?

  1. 5 min
  2. 10 min
  3. 4 min
  4. 9 min

Q2. A man wants to reach a window which is 40 feet above the ground. The distance from the foot of the ladder to the wall is 9 feet. How long should the ladder be?

  1. 81 feet
  2. 40 feet
  3. 41 feet
  4. 54 feet

Q3. Which figure will replace the question mark?


a) A

b) B

c) C

d) D

Q4. A, B, C, D, E, F and G are members of a family consisting of four adults and three children, two of whom, F and G are girls. A and D are brothers and A is a doctor. E is an engineer married to one of the brothers and has two children. B is married to D and G is their child. Who is C?

  1. E’s daughter
  2. G’s brother
  3. F’s father
  4. A’s son

Q5. Roy and Kavi are working on an assignment. Roy takes 6 hours to type 32 pages on a computer, while Kavi takes 5 hours to type 40 pages. How much time will they take, working together on two different computers to type an assignment of 110 pages?

    1. 8 hours 15 minutes
    2. 10 hours
    3. 7 hours 50 minutes
    4. 6 hours 40 minutes


1. b

2. c

3. a

4. d

5. a

Importance of CSAT:

  • The total marks of both UPSC Prelims Paper-1 (General Studies Paper) and Paper-2 (CSAT paper) were considered for arriving at the final order of merit (IAS prelims ranking) of the candidate to qualify for the UPSC mains examination.
  • However, there was a protest about including the CSAT in the ranking order by a section of the aspirant-community and the UPSC made a slight change in the pattern in response to this protest. In 2015, the CSAT was made a qualifying paper.
  • Under the present UPSC scheme of examination, candidates have to score a minimum of 33% i.e. 66 marks out of the 200 allotted for the CSAT paper in order to clear the Civil Services Preliminary Examination.
  • Only those candidates who manage to get a score of 66 or more in GS Paper-2 and also surpass the UPSC-prescribed cut off marks in GS Paper-1 are allowed to appear for the civil services mains examination.
CSAT Related Articles – UPSC
IAS Age Limit UPSC Online Preparation UPSC Online Application
IAS Questions for UPSC 2023 IAS Coaching UPSC Prelims
Current Affairs UPSC Notifications UPSC Mains
UPSC Books NCERT Notes For UPSC IAS Eligibility

Frequently Asked Questions on UPSC CSAT


Q 1. What is the UPSC CSAT exam?

Ans. CSAT or Civil Services Aptitude Test is one out of the two papers included in the UPSC prelims examination. It comprises questions to test the analytical ability, interpersonal skills and reasoning ability of candidates.

Q 2. What are the minimum qualifying marks for the UPSC prelims paper 2?

Ans. A candidate needs to score a minimum of 66 marks (33% of the total marks) in the CSAT paper for qualification. Only after scoring at least 66 marks in paper 2 and the minimum cut off (varies each year) in paper 1, can a candidate qualify for UPSC Mains.

Q 3. What is the syllabus for IAS Prelims General Studies Paper 2?

Ans. The topics included in the CSAT syllabus are given below in brief:

  • Reading Comprehension
  • Interpersonal and Communication Skills
  • Logical and Analytical Reasoning
  • Decision Making
  • Basic numeracy
  • General Mental Ability

Q 4. Is there a negative marking in the IAS prelims CSAT paper?

Ans. Yes, there is a negative marking in the UPSC prelims General Studies Paper 2.

Q 5. How should a candidate prepare for CSAT paper in UPSC exam?

Ans. Even though CSAT is qualifying in nature, many candidates neglect the CSAT and lose the opportunity to crack the exam. Read the syllabus of CSAT carefully and know the topics that are more familiar to you, do more practice on those topics, attempt more mock exams to boost your confidence.

Q 6. Does the scores of CSAT or UPSC General Studies paper 2 included in the final score?

Ans. No, CSAT is qualifying in nature so the scores will not be added to the final score. However, it is compulsory for candidates to obtain the minimum qualifying marks in CSAT, only then candidates will be able to make it up to mains.

Q 7. How are CSAT marks calculated?

Ans. The total marks for the CSAT exam is 200, and there are 80 questions. Each question carries 2.5 marks. Candidates need to score at least 33% or at least 66 marks to qualify for this paper. So if one scores more than 33% then he/she will qualify for the CSAT paper. There will be a deduction of 0.83 marks for every wrong answer.


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