The National Water Mission was launched in 2011. With the per capita availability of water-reducing every year, reducing groundwater tables, prolonged droughts, floods due to excess rains; water conservation and storage is a cause of very significant concerns for every nation. This topic would be of importance in the IAS Exam for both Prelims and Mains.
Context for UPSC Prelims 2021: The winners of National Water Awards 2020 will be soon be updated as the department of water resources has launched the 3rd National Water Awards on 10th December 2020.
For more details on Governments actions to protect the environment, candidates can go through the other missions of NAPCC formulated by the Government.
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Impact of climate change on water resources.
- The decline in the glaciers in the Himalayas.
- The drought situation in many parts of the country due to shortage in rainfall.
- Increase in floods due to the increase in the intensity of rains
- Effect on groundwater quality and quantity
- Increased saline intrusion in coastal aquifers due to rising sea levels.
What is the purpose of having this mission?
- Conserve water
- Minimize wastage
- Manage water resources in such a way that there is an equal distribution of water across the nation.
The objective of the National Water Mission
- Increase water use efficiency by 20% through regulations, differential entitlements and pricing.
- A considerable share of water needs of urban areas is to be met through recycling of wastewater.
- Water requirements of coastal cities are to be met through the adoption of low-temperature desalination technologies.
- Consult with states to ensure that basin-level management strategies are made to deal with variability in rainfall and river flows due to climate change.
- Enhance storage above and below ground, implement rainwater harvesting.
- Adopt large scale irrigation programmes which rely on sprinklers, drip irrigation and ridge and furrow irrigation.
National Water Mission document consists of 2 volumes. One volume deals with funds required for the mission, Research and Development that would be required for this mission, monitoring of the mission and the composition of the various committees to run this mission. Volume 2 of the mission document deals with the reports generated by 6 different sub-committees. The sub-committees are
- Sub-Committee on “Surface Water Management committee”
- Sub-Committee on “Efficient use of water for various purposes committee”
- Sub-Committee on “Domestic and Industrial Water management committee
- Sub-Committee on “Policy and Institutional framework committee”
- Sub-Committee on “Groundwater management committee”
- Sub-Committee on “Basin level planning and management”
An important milestone of this mission was the establishment of a Water Resources Information System (WRIS). This fulfils the mission’s goal to have an extensive database on water resources in the public domain.
National Water Mission Awards 2019
As per the mission document of the National Water Mission, the mission has 5 goals and 39 strategies. One of the strategies is to incentivize the organisations through awards. In line with this Mission has decided to confer ‘National Water Mission Awards’ in recognition of excellence achieved in sustainable water management, efficient use of water, and for excellence in water conservation.
The awards are given in the following 10 categories.
- Comprehensive water database in the public domain – Winners of this award are the Water Resources Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh and Irrigation and CAD Department, Government of Telangana.
- Assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources – Winners of this award are Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation (EPCO), Department of Environment, Bhopal.
- Promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation and preservation – Winners are the Water Resources Department, Government of Rajasthan and Department of Soil and Water conservation, Government of Punjab.
- Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas – Winners are Ambuja Cement Foundation, and State Ground Water Department, Government of Telangana.
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% – (Local individuals/farmer/citizens)
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% – (WUA, SHG’s, RWA’s)
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% (Public agencies – ULB’s/Cities, Govt organisations etc) – Winners are Department of Telangana Rural water supply and sanitation, Govt of Telangana for its Mission Bhagiratha.
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% (Industries/Corporate) – Winners are Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Pvt Ltd, Guntur; Lalitpur Power Generation Company Ltd, Raymond UCO Denim Pvt Ltd.
- Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management – Winners are the Water Resources Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh
- Water Resources Department, Maharashtra.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan
It is a campaign launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti with an emphasis on 1592 stressed blocks in 256 districts.
Quick Facts about National Water Mission
What is the aim of Jal Jeevan Mission?
Why is the Jal Jeevan Mission important?
What is the budget for Jal Jeevan Mission?
Why will Jal Jeevan Mission be a boost for rural economy?
- The revival of water bodies
- Skill building, and
- Institution creation
Which is the Ministry responsible for its implementation?
What is the focus of Jal Shakti Abhiyan?
- Water conservation and rainwater harvesting
- Renovation of traditional and other water bodies
- Reuse of water and recharging of structures
- Watershed development
- Intensive afforestation
The above details would be of help to candidates preparing for UPSC 2021 exams from the perspective of mains examination.